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62 Cards in this Set

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Command and control is about __ __. The main purpose of intelligence is to support the __ process.
making decisions-decisionmaking
The primary objective of intelligence is to support decisionmaking by reducing uncertainty about the __ __ to a reasonable level – recognizing, of course, that the __ __ __ renders anything close to absolute certainty impossible.
hostile situation-fog of war
The secondary objective is to assist in :
protecting friendly forces through counterintelligence.
What attribute of war can never be eliminated and pervades any battlefield;
To achieve this reduction in the commander’s unknowns - intelligence must accomplish (4) specific actions:
1. Identify and evaluate existing environmental conditions and threat capabilities.
2. Estimate possible enemy courses of action (both present and future) based on environmental conditions and enemy capabilities.
3. Identify friendly vulnerabilities that the enemy may exploit in their Course of Action (COA).
4. Using this intelligence, assist in the development and evaluation of friendly
Intelligence Functions (6):
1. Support the commander’s initial estimate of the situation to support decisionmaking and planning.
2. Develop the situation — provide the commander continuous situational awareness to permit flexibility or exploitation of opportunities.
3. Provide Indications and Warning (I&W) to help prevent the enemy from achieving surprise and allow the commander to be proactive vice reactive to enemy actions.
4. Support force protection — identifying - locating, and countering the enemy’s reconnaissance and surveillance
assets- intelligence apparatus- and sabotage/terrorism capabilities.
5. Support the targeting process — identifying targets- target systems- critical nodes- and high-value/high payoff targets.
6. Support combat assessment — essential to determining the overall effectiveness of combat operations.
Information vs. Intelligence: Information is ___ material of every description, including that derived from observations, reports, rumors, imagery, and other sources which, when processed, __ produce intelligence.
Intelligence is “the product resulting from the(5):
1. collection 2. evaluation 3. analysis 4. integration 5. interpretation
To be considered intelligence, data must be placed in a context to provide an accurate and meaningful image of the __ __:
hostile situation
Combat information is unevaluated data, gathered by or provided directly to the __ __ because of its highly __ nature, or the __ of the situation; cannot be processed into tactical intelligence.:
tactical commander-perishable-criticality
Tactical intelligence is the (3):
1. knowledge of the enemy 2. weather 3. geographic features-Terrain.
Tactical intelligence should (5):
1. Describe the operational environment.
2. Identify key factors in the operational environment that could potentially influence operations.
3. Define and evaluate threat capabilities (strengths and weaknesses).
4. Identify the enemy’s center of gravity and critical vulnerabilities.
5. Assess potential enemy intentions.
Terrain and weather are the __ modifiers of doctrine
and plans - while terrain and
weather are __
greatest-neutral, as they affect both the enemy and us.
When determining how weather will affect friendly/enemy operations consider the following 4:
1. Personnel 2. Tactics 3. Logistics 4. Terrain
Winds, precipitation, visibility, and temperature will impact such logistics minded factors as 4:
1 Amphibious offloads.
2 Resupply route trafficability.
3 Procurement of specialized equipment.
4 Types and amounts of supplies necessary to conduct operations.
The __ will determine enemy capabilities against the unit
in light of the friendly mission and will propose the __ to the commander.
S-2- enemy’s most probable course of action (EMPCOA)
The S-2 then identifies __ __ associated with this EMPCOA, and again recommends these to the commander to aid in planning a friendly COA that will maximize effects against that critical vulnerability.
exploitable vulnerabilities
The __ is ultimately responsible for deciding what the likely enemy actions will be and how he will tailor his operations to exploit the enemy’s vulnerabilities.
Intelligence operations in regard to the Marine Corps’ Warfighting philosophy (2):
1 Remain flexible.
2 Use imagination.
“Intelligence push”
sends critical intelligence to the tactical commander
“intelligence pull”
allows the commander to receive additional intelligence support as needed from higher
Intelligence collection activities require centralized
__ and decentralized __
The (6) interdependent phases of the intelligence cycle:
1 Planning and Direction.
2 Collection.
3 Processing and Exploitation.
4 Production.
5 Dissemination.
6 Utilization.
The key to organizing and prioritizing your limited assets is an understanding of 3:
1 Your mission.
2 The commander’s intent.
3 The use of priority intelligence requirements (PIRs) and intelligence requirements (IRs).
Priority Intelligence Requirement (PIR).
An intelligence requirement associated with a decision that will critically affect the overall success of the unit’s mission. PIRs are always listed in priority order.
In designating PIRs, the commander establishes 4:
1 What he wants to know (intelligence required).
2 Why he wants it (linkage to operational decisionmaking).
3 When he needs it (LTIOV [Last Time Information is Of Value]).
4 How he wants it (format and method of delivery).
Intelligence Requirement (IR):
are “stuff we’d like to know,” but usually will not affect mission accomplishment if we don’t know. IRs
Common Characteristics of PIRs/IRs.
1 Focuses on a specific fact
2 Is tied to a specific decision
3 Provides concise statement of what intel is required
4 Contains geographic and time elements
Second phase of the intelligence - Processing and
Exploitation Phase 3:
1. The collection operations are planned.
2. Assets are positioned to perform their responsibilities of collecting the information and
reporting it back to the appropriate unit/section.
3. PIRs/IRs are re-evaluated and updated.
During the processing and exploitation phase, collected
information is converted into:
a man readable format more suitable for the production of intelligence.
The fourth phase of the intelligence cycle is production-where information is 5:
1 Evaluated to determine relevancy, reliability, and
2 Analyzed to isolate specific, significant elements.
3 Integrated with other information and previously
developed intelligence.
4 Applied to estimate possible COAs.
5 Produced in a format that will be usable by all who
need it.
Commanders must 5:
1 Focus the intelligence effort.
2 Participate in the intelligence process.
3 Use intelligence in decisionmaking.
4 Support the intelligence effort.
5 Evaluate the results of intelligence activities in the
form of feedback.
S-2 (Unit Intelligence Officer) Responsibilities (6):
1 Assist the commander in developing PIRs/IRs.
2 Ensure the command’s intelligence requirements are received, understood, and acted upon by organic and supporting intelligence assets.
3 Monitor the effective flow of intelligence throughout the command.
4 Provide battle damage assessment (BDA) and functional system assessment data and analysis to aid the combat assessment process.
5 Provide functional area support to intelligence operations.
6 Submit requests for intelligence support (e.g., maps, imagery, specific data/information/intelligence), as well as any IRs, which are specific to their mission or taskings.
Situation Report (SITREP)
Used to give a brief synopsis to higher of a unit’s:
o Location.
o Past and planned activities.
o Any support requirements.
Contact Report (CONTACREP):
Used to report briefly and concisely any enemy contact by consolidating the most important elements of the SITREP and CASREP, while allowing the unit commander to focus on resolving the present situation.
Enemy Sighting Report (SPOTREP):
Commonly referred to as the SALUTE report, the SPOTREP provides for detailed reporting of:
o Size.
o Activity.
o Location.
o Unit.
o Time.
o Equipment.
Battle Damage Assessment (BDA) 4:
1 The type of fire received or observed.
2 Duration of fire.
3 Estimated bearing and distance of firing unit.
4 Any battle damage sustained.
Frequency Interference Report (FIRREP):
Provides only the most essential elements of the MIJIREP and decreases transmission time.
Report discrepancies between weather briefed and weather encountered and its effects on:
o Friendly operations.
o Aircraft.
o Vehicles.
o Equipment (specifically weapon systems).
o Personnel.
o Estimated effect on enemy operations.
Report discrepancies between terrain briefed, terrain seen on maps/imagery, and the actual terrain encountered, such as:
o New hazards to navigation.
o Effect on friendly operations.
o Estimated effect on enemy operations.
Reconnaissance can be broken down into 3 categories:
1 route
2 zone
3 area
A route reconnaissance may be oriented on a:
road or an axis or direction of attack. Route reconnaissance is faster than zone reconnaissance because effort is concentrated along the route and its controlling terrain.
A zone reconnaissance is a directed effort to obtain detailed information concerning all
routes, obstacles (to
include chemical or radiological contamination), terrain, and enemy forces within a zone defined by boundaries.
A zone reconnaissance normally is assigned when:
o The enemy situation is vague.
o Information concerning cross-country trafficability is desired
level intelligence units are concentrated in the:
intelligence battalion and radio battalion to enhance centralized command and control of these limited assets.
The organic intelligence assets in the Marine Corps are
categorized as 4:
1 Ground combat element intelligence assets.
2 Radio battalion (RadBn).
3 Intelligence battalion.
4 Air combat element intelligence assets.
In line Companies/Battalions -All Marines must understand their role as:
information collectors, and the benefits they reap if they remain alert and aware of their surroundings, and report their observations to higher.
Division Reconnaissance Battalions mission includes:
to conduct pre- and post-assault reconnaissance for the ground combat element
Division Reconnaissance Battalions taskings include:
o Reconnaissance and surveillance (R&S) of GCE objectives.
o Limited hydrographic studies.
o Confirmatory beach reporting.
o Boat initial terminal guidance (ITG).
o Route reconnaissance.
o Helicopter Landing Zone studies and ITG.
o Terminal control of supporting arms.
o Most importantly, observation and reporting
on the command’s PIRs/IRs.
Scout Sniper Platoon
Battalions have one scout sniper latoon which is GS to the battalion. Although the eyes nd ears for the battalion commander, the scout sniper latoon may be put in direct support (DS) of a company based on the priority given to that unit’s mission.
Light Armored Reconnaissance Battalion (LAR) generally operate as
another maneuver force. However, its missions of conducting route, zone, and area reconnaissance make it a vital intelligence collection asset.
The LAR battalion is particularly suited for:
o Highly mobile ground reconnaissance.
o Deep reconnaissance.
o Counter-reconnaissance.
Radio Battalion (RadBn) provides:
groundbased and limited aerial-based signals intelligence (SIGINT) and electronic warfare (EW) capability to support MAGTF operations.
Some of the RadBn missions are to:
Conduct interception, radio direction finding (DF), recording and analysis of
communications intelligence (COMINT) and non-communications signals (ELINT), and all SIGINT processing, analysis, production, and reporting.
o Conduct EW operations to include electronic attack (EA), electronic support (ES), and electronic protect (EP), against enemy C2
o Conduct communication security (COMSEC)monitoring of friendly forces to protect
o Provide radio reconnaissance teams (RRT)
with special nsertion/extraction capabilities to provide specified SIGINT and EA support during advance force, pre-assault, and postassault
The intelligence battalion resides:
under MEF command and is GS to the MEF.
The intelligence battalion provides:
o Imagery intelligence (IMINT).
o Sensor employment.
o Human intelligence (HUMINT).
The intelligence battalion
establishes and mans an:
intelligence operations center and surveillance and reconnaissance center (SARC) under the staff cognizance of the G-2/S-2, providing centralized command and control of MAGTF organic collection assets and all-source fusion of the information collected and reported.
Some of the units within the intelligence battalion are the:
Counterintelligence (CI)/HUMINT Company.
Imagery Intelligence Platoon (IIP).
Ground Sensor Platoon (GSP).
Topographic Platoon.
Ground Sensor Platoon (GSP)
Formerly called sensor control and management platoon (SCAMP), employs numerous types of sensors, including seismic, magnetic, infrared, and thermal, to provide indications and warning (I&W), targeting information, and queuing for intelligence collection.
Topographic Platoon
This platoon provides 3-D and other visual graphic intelligence products to support operation planning.
Marine Corps Forces Special Operations Command (MARSOC)core capabilities include:
direct action, special reconnaissance, foreign internal defense, counterterrorism, information
operations, and unconventional warfare.
MARSOC is comprised
Foreign Military Training Unit (FMTU)
Marine Special Operations Battalions (MSOB)
Marine Special Operations Support Group (MCSOSG).
Marine Special Operations School (MSOS).