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47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the ability to understand and adapt to the environment by using a combinatino of inherited abilities and learning experiences
Intelligence Tests
tests for assesing a person's mental abilities and comparting them with the abilities of others, measures intelligence potential
Francis Galton
English Scientist, believed in eugenics, assumed all traits were inherited, believed in the natural superiority of men (esp. white men), tested on intellectual strengths but failed to find consistent differences between men and women in tests, first scientist to try and measure mental ability
measure human traits, they selectively breed superior people, those with the the greatest natural ability could be encouraged to mate with one another
Alfred Binet & Theodore Simon
French psychologists who developed a test to identify children in need of special classes in France, published first useful test of general mental ability, believed in mental age, test consisted of reasoning and problem solving questions that might predict school achievement and claimed that intelligence was not entirely inborn
Intellectual Development
a "dull" child should perform as a typically younger child and a "bright" child should perform as a typically older child
Mental Age
the chronological age that typically corresponds to a certain level of performance
Lewis Terman and Innate IQ
revised the Binet test to be Stanford-Binet, now widely used
Intelligence Quotient
William Stern, IQ=mental age/chronological age *100
Mental Ability Score
score based on test taken performance relative to the performance of all others of the same age, 100 average, 2/3 of people within one standard deviation
Cultural Biases
minority groups, time constraints, unfamiliar examples, slang terminology
Intelligence is defined as...
culture specific and socially constructed concept, a person's ability for goal-directed and adaptive behavior
statistical procedure that identifies cluster of related items on a test
General Intelligence (g)
Charles Spearman, a common thread in all measures of intelligence, underlies all intelligent behavior, (s) specific ability or talent
measurement of individual differences in abilities and behaviors (ie: personality or IQ tests)
Howard Gardner
7 multiple intelligences: linguistic, logical, spatial, musical, kinesthetic, interpersonal, and intrapersonal and naturalistic added later to make 8, critics say that there is diff between talent and intellifence and ability does not equal intelligence, also some skills are more critical
Savant Syndrome
a condition in which a person of otherwise limited mental ability has an amazing skill
Robert Sternberg
3 intelligences
Practical(social, contexual) - required for everyday tasks which are frequently ill defined with multiple correct solutions
Creative(expenencial) - demonstrated in reacting to novel situations
Problem-Solving(analytic, componential) - skills assessed by intelligence tests
Emotional Intelligence
the ability to act properly in a number of social situations and successfully manage one's emotions
1. self awareness: knowing what you feel and using your gut sense to make decisions you can happily live with
2. management of feelings: control impulses and sooth anxiety
3. motivation: zeal, persistence, and optimism in the face of setbacks
4. empathy: reading and responding to unspoken feelings
5. social skill: handling emotional responses in smooth and effective ways
Aptitude Tests
measure potential to do well in an area
Achievement Tests
measure knowledge you have
David Wechsler
profiles individuals' strengths and weaknesses, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC), both consist of 11 subtests
Verbal Score
IQ test items that rely heavily on word comprehension and usage (definitions, spelling, analogies, math word problems)
Performance Score
IQ test items that try to bypass verbal material and concentrate on objects (block building, series of #s, puzzles)
determining the significance of scores by comparing them to a pretest group
Flynn Effect
Intelligent test performance has been imporving, possibly b/c of better nutrition, more info available, greatest gains in non-verbal category (maybe b/c of video games?)
tests provide consistent results over time
Test-Retest Reliability
retest the same people using the same test
Alternate Forms Reliability
retest the same people on a different version of the test
Split-Half Reliability
compare answers of half of the questions to answers on the other half
Test measures what it is supposed to
Face Validity
how the test looks - looks like it measures what it is designed to measure
Content Validity
whether or not the test samples the skills or knowledge needed for achievement in the task being measured
Construct Validity
whether the test measures what it was designed to measure
Predictive Validity
whether the performance on the test predicts later performance in the task being measured
Criterion-Related Validity
estimated by correlating subjects' scores on a test with scores on an independent criterion (another measure) of the trait assessed by test
Mental Retardation
Limited mental ability, IQ <70, accompanied by difficulty adapting, males outnumber females by 50%
Everyone in regular education class, to learn social skills instead of being segregated into tracts
seperation into different levels of education - ie the honor tract
high perfomances on IQ tests, frequently have brains that use less glucose, some believe the link between neural efficiency has to do with intelligence
Middle of 3 ring conception - high intelligence, high creativity, and high motivation, Renzuli
Functional Fixedness
tendency to perceive an item only in its most common use (lack of creativity)
Functional Fixedness
tendency to perceive an item only in its most common use (lack of creativity)
Break Set
breaking out of your nomral ways of thinking (creativity)
Nature vs. Nurture
early beliefs that intelligence is inherited more common now to believe it is both environmental and heredity, studies with adopted children and twins
Gender Differences in Intelligence
males achieve higher in math and spatial ability and females achieve higher in verbal
Culture Free Tests
who constructs the test, the language used, vocabulary used, lifestyles represented