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78 Cards in this Set

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Metals
Have1-3 e- in their valence shell. they give away electrons
Isotope
Atoms of the same element that have diff. mass# and the sme chemical properties
Octet Rule
All atoms except (H and He) 8 Electrons in valence shell H and He prefer 2.
Ionic Bond
Attractive force between two ions with opposite charge
Fission
splitting of an atomic nucleus into 2 smaller nuclei w/2 release of energy
Fusion
When 2 atoms are combined to form one larger atom W/energy released. Heat & pressure increase. H Bomb/stars
Formula for fusion
Hydrogen combines
H1 + H1 = He2
Formula for fission
235 U + 1/on--- 92Kr Ba+ 3 1/0 n + energy
Uses for fission
Nuclear Power Plants
Atomic Bomb
Uses for fusion
H Bomb Sun
Nuclear power plant
Uses Uranium and fission to create electrical energy
Isotope
Atoms of the same element that have diff. mass # and the same chemical properties.
Uses of radioactive isotopes
Study living organisms to diagnose and Treat disease- sterilize
Alpha particle
4He
2
Beta Particle
A high speed electron is shot out of the nucleus changing the atomic # to 1 higher(indicating radiation)
Example of Beta Decay
14 14
C N
6 9 Stable 7P 7N
Half Life
Time it takes for 1/3 of a sample of radioactive material to decay to another nuclide
Radioactive fallout
Clouds of fine dust radioactive particles from bomb debris that falls back to earth.
Nuclide
Naced nucleus- Nucleus with no electron
Decay Series
Steps it takes to become
non-radioactive- Stable 83 and below
Binding energy or
The huge amount of energy that holds protons together in nucleus
Transmutation
Change across
Gamma Radiation
y- waves of pure energy that travel at the speed of light. Electromagnetic energy
Time Distance and shielding
Speed of light

Concrete or lead shelilding
What materials stop which radiation Particles?
Alph-Paper
Beta-Aluminum 1 centimeter thick
Gamnma-concrete or lead
Scientific method
Planned organized approach of solving a problem
Indeptndent varialbe
in an experiment is the factor that is the manipulated by the experimentor.
Dependent variable
Is a factor that can change if the independent variable is changed
Control Group
It does not receive the independent variable
Experimental group
The group affected by the independent variable. the group receiving a different treatment
Metals
have 1-3 e- in thir valence shell. They give away electrons
Metalloid
Resembling or alike a metal. the elements towards the right of the the periodic table.
Neutral atom
Atom w/no charge because it has the same # of protons
Inert Element
An atom of an element that has as many valence electrons as its outer most shell can hold.
Radioactive elements
Elements that are chemically unstable and give off radiation.
Non-metals
Elements that don't have most of the properties of metals
Period
The horizontal rows on the periodic table.
Group or family
The verticle rosw on the periodic table with atoms that have a similer physical and chemical characteristics.
Atomic Mass
The average number of protons and neutrons of the isotopes of an element.
Atomic Number
The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.
Proton
A tiny atomic particle in the nucleus of an atom with mass and a positive charge.
Neutron
A tiny atomic particle in the nucleus of an atom that is electricaly neutral and has about the same mass as a proton.
Electron
A tiny atomic particle in the energy levels of an atom with little mass and a negative electral charge.
Ion
An electricaly charged atom or group of atoms with an uneven number of protons and neurons.
Neutral atom
An atom without a net charge and an equal number of protons and neutrons.
Chemical Reaction
The change of one or more substances into other substances.
four ways you can tell a chemical reation is occurring
Energy is released, a new substance is formes, light is released, or a chnge of color.
As you go down the periodic talbe what is added
Energy levels
Atom
The smallest particle of an element that has all of the characteristics of an element.
Compound
A sustance composed of two or more molecules.
Diatomic molecule
2 or more atoms of the same element that combine naturally.
Particles in the nucleus
protons and neutrons exist in one nucleus of an atom.
Particles in the orgitals or shells
Electrons are in the orbitals or shells of an atom
Reactant
The molecules to the left of the arrow when balancing equations.
Product
The molecules to the right of the arrow when balancing equations
Subscript
The number to the lower right of an element that tells how many atoms there are of that element.
Coefficient
The number in front of a molecule that tells the number of molecules that you have.
Ionic bonds usually form between
2 ions of opposite charge
Covalent bonds
Bonds formed when 2 or more atoms share electrons with each other, forming a molecule.
covalent bonds usually form between
2 or more atoms that need to become inert
Bohr model
Draw a bohr model for carbon
Lewis Dot
Draw a lewis dot for carbon
Valence Electrons
the electrons in the outer enery level of an atom that participate in a chemical bonding.
Positive Ion
An ion with more protons then eletrons because it lost some electrons to become an ion
Negative ion
an ion with more electrons then protons becuase it gained some electrons to become an ion.
Control factors
the variable that do not change
continuous data
Used in a line graph
Discontinuous Data
Used in a bar or pie graph.
Raw Data
The numbers without being put into graphs/ can be measured
Derived dat
Mathmatically calculated not measured
Bar graph (when used)
For discontinous data when x and y are the same
Line graph ( when used)
Discontinous data relative . Shows how part is relative to the whole.
Advantages of using a data table
1.Can see the numbers froe easily
2. Organization
Column
Vertical
Row
Horizontal
Hypothesis
an educated guess; neither right or wrong
Interpolation
prediction using info/ measurements from existing points
Extrapolation
predictions of info/measurements from beyond the exiting points.