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105 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Tides on Earth caused by
gravitational pull of moon and sun
season of winter in N. Hemisphere produced because
N. hemispehre is tilted away from sun
June 21st
longest day - shortest night
orbit of the earth around the sun
revolution
moon appears to be increasing in size night after night
waxing
avg. distance between Earth and Sun measured by
astronomical unit
N. Hemisphere sun is more directly overhead during
summer
energy in stars produced by
nuclear fusion
outward pressure from core of sun counteracted by the inward force of
gravity
Aurora Borealis caused by
charged particles/ions
only visible & lowest layer of sun's atmosphere
photosphere
top layer of sun's atmosphere
corona
period of minimum solar activity followed by a maximum, minimum,a dn maximum
solar cycle
constellations
groups of stars that form a pattern
streak of light- shooting star
meteor
prominences
arc of gas ejected from the chromosphere
Solar flares
violent eruptions of particles and radiation from the surface of the sun
sunspots
cooler areas on the photosphere that appears darker than surrounding areas on the sun
Sun & Earth located in
disk of the Milky Way
Our sun
average star
Big Bang Theory
universe began as a point and has been expanding ever since
Milky Way
belongs to a cluster of galaxies known as the local group
apparent magnitude
how bright a star appears from the Earth
absolute magnitude
how bright a star is compared to other stars at the same distance from earth
solar eclipse
when sun's light is blocked because the Earths shadow falls upon the moon
lunar eclipse
characterized by either long days and short nights or vice versa
solstice
how bright a star appears from the earth
Earths atmosphere contains more ______ than any othr substance
nitrogen and oxygen
condeensation nuclei are particles of atmpspheric dust around which
cloud droplets form
latent heat
energy that is stored in a substance
stability
an air mass's ability to resist rising
ozone
Gas formed by adding a 3rd oxygen atom to an oxygen molecule
radiation
transfer of energy through space by electromagnetic waves
dew point
temperature to which air must be cooled at constant pressure to reach saturation
COALESCENCE
cloud droplets that collide to form laarger droplets
Carbon Dioxide
AMOUNT OF ENERGY THE ATMOSPHERE ABSORBS DEPENDED IN PART ON THE LEVEL OF THIS
weather
CURRENT short-term variations in the atmosphere
lines on the map that connect points of equal or constant values
Isopleths
polar easterlies
global winds that occur between the poles and about 60 degrees latitude in both hemispheres
prevailing westerlies
global winds that occur between 30- 60 degrees north& south latitude
station model
record of weather data for a [particular site at a particular time using symbols
measure wind speed
anemometer
barometer
measures air pressure
ceilometer
measures height of cloud layers and estimates percentages of sky covered by clouds
hygrometer
measures relative humidity
thermometer
measures temperature
Air mass
forms because of unequal heating of earth's surface within one air mass
Tornadoes
often associated with very severe thunderstorms called super cells
cirrus
high altitude clouds usuallu made of ice
energy that drives the water cycle comes from
the sun
winds traveling at high speed that encircle the eart are
the jet stream
Examples of convection can be found in
the inner layer of the earth in magma, in the atmosphere,in the layers
the water cycle
constant movement of water between the armosphere and the earth's surface
air mass modification
exchange of heat or cmoisture with the surface over which an air mass travels
storm surge
mound of water driven toward coastal areas by hurricane winds
STRATOSPHERE
OUTERMOST LAYER OF THE ATMOSPHERE
exosphere
contains concentrated ozone
troposhere
most weather occurs here
cold front
cold dense air that displaces warm air forcing the warm air up
warm front
advancing warm air that displaces cold air
stationary front
two air masses that meet and do not advance
high pressure systen
systen assicuated with dry air and clear skies
front
narrow region separating any tow air masses of different densities
low pressure system
system associated with unstable air and rain or snow
drought
extended period of well-below norman rain fall
air mass formed over a continent near the equator is
warm and dry
hurricanes get their energy from
warm ocean waters over 80 degrees
Fujita scale
measures tornado damage and intensity
water
heats slowly
specific heat
energy needed to raise a given volume of substance one degree Celcius
subduction
process in which the ocean floor returns to the earth's interior
mid-oceanic ridges
sea floor spreading occurs here
When two continental plates collide
both plates push upward to form mountains
convection currents in magma
the force that move tje plates of the earth
transform boundary
a fault whre 2 plates slide past one another
ring of fire
area of high vocanic activity found at the borders of the pacific plate. It is an are of high earthquake activity
tranform boundary
a fault where two plates slide past one another
most violet earthquakes found
at subduction boundaries
New Madrid Fault
caused by earthquakes that occur in the midwest
plate tectonics
earth's crust and rigid upper mantle ae divided into plates which moe in differenc directions and rates
most divergent plates are found
on the seafloor
Wegner's hypothesis of cotinental drift
couldn't explain how or why the continents moved
early mapmakers thought earth's continents had moved based on
matching coastlines
transform
crust is neither destroyed onor formed on these boundaries
San Andreas Fault
California
Richter scale
numerical scale of earth quake magnitude that takes into account the size of the earthquakes largest seismic wave
focus
point within the eath's crust whre a fault moves
P- wave
carries the least amount of energy
S- wave
only wave that is transverse
surface wave
can pass through Earth;s liquid outer core
stress
fracture in rock along which movement occurs
fault
fracture imn rock along which movement occurs
tsunami
wave generated by vertical motions of the seafloor
the sun
the ultimate source of energy on Earth
chlorfluorcarbons
gas responsible for ozone depletion in the upper atmosphere
mature stage
stage of thunderstorm when downdrafts and updrafts are equally present and the storm is at its strongest
conduction
earth heats the air above
convection
heat in the lower atmosphere circulated
radiation
sun heats the earth and the atmosphere
wind chill
takes the temperature and speed of wind into account
heat index
takes the relative humidity and temp. into account
Coriolis Effect
global winds do not blow directly north and south
squalls
when a hurricane hits land, it is divided smaller thunderstorms
very low barometric pressure
center of the hurricane
meteorologists
scientist who studies weather