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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The most important fuel for the brain is
glucose
Complex regulatory pathways are in place to ensure sufficient supply of this to the brain
glucose
Is brain glucose uptake altered in type 2 diabetes?
NO
This is the first hormone to be molecularly cloned and the first protein for which the complete amino acid sequence was determined
insulin
Insulin is released from these in response to many stimuli, including elevated concentrations of blood glucose
pancreatic beta cells
Two therapeutic strategies of insulin
1. providing hormone replacement when deficient and
2. enhancing hormone action when resistance occurs
Insulinoma
insulin secreting tumors
Leonard Thompson
first child treated with insulin in 1922, the miracle cure
Insulin DEPENDENT diabetes
type 1
Onset:
Glargine (Lantus)
2-4
Constellation of symptoms of diabetes (insulin resistance) is often associated with
obesity, stress and immunosuppression
when normal amounts of insulin are ineffective in lowering plasma glucose concentrations
hyperinsulinemia
this syndrome increases risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease
metabolic syndrome
Insulin is synthesized and secreted from pancreatic beta cells in the
islets of langerhans
4 cell types of islet of langerhans
1. alpha (glucagon)
2. beta (insulin)
3. gamma (somatostatin)
4. F (pancreatic polypeptide)
24 amino acid N-terminal signal peptide cleaved during transport through rough ER to yield
pro-insulin
after pro-insulin in formed, protein folding, disulfide bond formation and further cleavage yield
insulin
alpha chains of insulin have how many amino acids
21
beta chains of insulin have how many amino acids
30
insulin in a member of a family of related peptides called
IGFs
These, which have two subtypes (1 & 2), are produced in many cells and mediate effects of GH
IGFs
Insulin can bind to these receptors with low affinity
IGFs
Secretion of this is BI-PHASIC
insulin
Insulin secretion is stimulated when these cells sense high glucose concentration and are electrically excitable
beta cells
Other stimulatory factors or these cells besides glucose include: dietary AAs, ACh, GI hormones released, fatty acids and GIP
beta cells
Glucose is taken up by pancreatic beta cells via
GLUT2, glucose transporter
Glucose is phosphorylated by ________, the glucose "sensor"
glucokinase
Glucose is further metabolized via mitochondrial respiration to produce
ATP
Increase in ___ causes a block of K channels, therefore the membrane __________, causing an influx in __, leading to insulin secretion
ATP, depolarization, Ca+
Glucose taken by this route of administration is a greater stimulus for insulin secretion due to stimulatory effects of GI hormones
orally