Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

255 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
Action learning
An exercise most often completed between instructor-led training episodes in which learners apply their new knowledge or skills to a real or case study situation following guidelines and directions established during the training episode (is not limited to instructor-led courses)
This model reflects the systematic process of instructional design. A=Analysis, D=Design, D=Development, I=Implementation, E=Evaluation
Adoption and diffusion
The spread of acceptance and usage of an innovation amongst any social system through various forms of communication
Affective domain
The portion of the brain which acquires knowledge of emotional, attitudinal, and possibly motivational in nature.
Algorithmic Problem
Problems solved by a finite and rigid set of procedures with limited, predictive decisions.
First component of ADDIE instructional design model; includes needs assessment, performance analysis and creating goals
Analysis Summary
Andragogy (Adult learning)
the study of educating adults based on research in adult learning
ARCS Model
A holistic approach to motivational design written by Keller in the eighties. A=Attention, R=Relevancy, C=Confidence, S=Satisfaction
Artificial intelligence
A man-made innovation which can take systemic problems and make decisions based on multi-dimensional data
A purposeful and on-going review of a process or system resulting in a recommendation
Augmented visual cues
Air Force used this to overcome visual resolution difficulties in training missions by artificially enhancing aircraft appearance
Behavioral objective
Goals of instruction that explain specific outcomes observed in student behaviors
Theories of learning based on behavioral outcomes. Behaviors can be predicted and altered based on environmental signals and consequences following the behaviors, including various types of reinforcement and feedback.
Behavior modification
From B.F. Skinner’s research and theories of behaviorism: A known behavior can be changed or alter into another selected behavior through planned intervention by an outside influence.
Bloom, Benjamin
1950s Developed the six domains of learning (knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation) as well as a taxonomy of learning skills
Bloom's Taxonomy
Branches of Philosophy
Includes Epistemology (How do we know the world?), Axiology (What is a value?), and Ontology (What is real?)
Broad initiative
Characterized by initiatives in K-12 education that radically challenge current beliefs of current practice.
Change agent
The person or individual who actively influences the adoption of an innovation
Stufflebeam’s evaluation model which began with a context analysis, then questioned inputs available, next assessed process, and finally product evaluation (which resembled summative evaluation).
Argues in the Media vs. Method debate that media does not affect learning although other associated influences may such as motivation and familiarity.
Classroom Model
Classroom Training
Having to do with the brain or mind and its awareness and knowledge
Cognitive domain
Anything pertaining to the cognitive portion of the mind. The portion of the brain which consciously influences practices in learning.
This learner learns best when he/she can review each topic in any order to get a whole picture prior to studying details of each topic. (Also known as a holist learner)
This learner learns best when instruction is presented in a logical and sequential manner. (Also known as a serialist learner)
Cognitive strategies
Communication theory
A process involving an information sender using a communication medium to send the information to the information receiver.
Computer as tool
When the computer is used to help a learner in constructing knowledge by behaving as a resource for recording, analyzing, and organizing information.
Computer as tutee
Student develop higher-order thinking skills by using simple programming languages to teach the computer to perform tasks
Computer as tutor
The computer system provides the learner with information, examples, practice, and feedback which is necessary for knowledge construction.
Computer-based training
The use of a computer as the primary medium for delivering instruction. Historically, CBT includes computer-assisted instruction, PLATO, TICCIT. Today computer-based instruction is seen in many subject specific software programs, online tutorials, and occasionally distances learning programs.
Concurrent engineering
Cone of Experience
Developed by Dale. A graphical representation of required learner activity showing the student as an active learner in the lower levels and drifting to a more abstract learner higher on the cone.
The belief that all individuals build knowledge through experiences and reflecting on those experiences. All individuals are capable of building knowledge; however, they likely gain knowledge in different ways through a variety of experiences. Based on epistemological beliefs that no absolute truth exists and our observations are fallible. Truth is based on the context in which it is found.
Constructivist Paradigm
Includes cooperative learning, problem solving, multiple realities, learning goals, rich learning environments, exploratory learning, teacher as learning facilitator, student as active participant, students are responsible for learning, context-driven evaluations
Content Analysis
Content Resources
Cost-benefit analysis
Criterion-referenced test
The use of tests to determine skill mastery. The results are not dependent upon other student performance.
Criterion-referenced test items
Decision-making problem
Problems with limited number of solutions and usually calling for compare/contrast
Deductive sequencing
A definition or explanation of a concept is presented prior to examples. (see serialist learner)
Delivery System
Second component of ADDIE model; includes creating objectives, designing curriculum, identifying learning techniques, and choosing instructional materials.
Design brief
Design problem
Problems utilizing domain knowledge and strategic knowledge and balancing needs and constraints; no one right answer and best solution is never known.
The component of ADDIE model which includes creating student and instructor materials identified during design.
Diagnosis-Solution problem
One step beyond troubleshooting problems; once the cause of problem is identified, then it must be repaired and/or corrected.
Dick and Carey
Dilemma problem
Problems with no solution acceptable or correct to all parties involved.
The process an innovation or activity goes through as its use spreads through a community or system.
Direct instruction
An instructional style (in K-12) based in behavioral philosophies. Teacher states objective, deliver instruction in systematic way, monitor student performance and provide learners with immediate feedback.
Directive initiatives
Initiatives in K-12 education that stem from leadership efforts. (ant: emergent initiatives)
Directive instructional style
In this instructional style the learner is given tutorial type instruction where interaction at a low level is required and feedback is exchanged. (novice learners)
Distance learning
Distance learning is known today as the use of various communication tools in order to provide communication and instruction between and student and instructor when they are not face to face. Since the development of the Internet, distance education has become a changing force in education (primarily excluding K-12). This can occur in situations where the learner is in a different country than the instructor, or within the same town.
Distributed Mission Training
A military training technique for specific missions without having all members of a training team located at the same location, but instead, distributed in differing locations.
Domains of learning
Developed by Gangé, includes psychomotor skills, affective skills or attitudes, verbal rote information, intellectual skills or the application of rules, and cognitive strategies.
Educational technology
The use or design of technology for educational purposes whether instructional or productivity related.
Electronic Performance Support System (EPSS)
Computer-based training and information system which provide simulations, advice, data, and exercises to improve performance or skill. These systems utilize simple artificial intelligence to customize and guide the user. EPSS are a growing trend in IT within the workplace.
Embedded Tests
Emergent initiatives
K-12 philosophical initiatives that start from teachers or other non-administrative personnel.
Entry Behaviors
Entry Behavior test item
A belief or philosophy of the nature of knowledge or understanding. Ex. Positivism, Relativism, Behaviorism, Constructivism, etc.
A review of a product or outcome to determine its significance, value, or condition
Evaluation report
Events of instruction
Developed by Gangé to support theory of internal processing including: The hook, sharing the objective, relating to prior knowledge, presenting the stimulus, guiding or facilitating learning and processing, practice of performance, feedback of performance, assessment of performance, and enhancing retention and transfer (making connections with other knowledge/storing knowledge).
Exploratory Instruction
This instructional style the student controls learning by being immersed in an open learning environment of independent instruction through activities, informational databases, examples, demonstrations, and exercises. (expert learner)
Extrinsic Motivation
The motivation to do something because of an outside reward.
Facilitator Guide
Facilitator plan
A positive or negative response to a performance. Seen as a major part in many design and learning theories.
This learner functions well in cooperative or collaborative learning environments.
This learner functions best in independent and individualized learning environments.
Field trial
Five levels of evaluation
Five levels of web use
Five levels include: 1) Informational 2) Supplemental 3) Essential 4) Communal 5) Immersive. Note: The larger number of students in a class the lower the level of web use that is appropriate.
Formative assessment
Assessing a design or product in order to find flaws
Formative evaluation
a physical or mental competition between two or more participants conducted according to a given set of rules
Gangé's Nine events of instruction
Gangé, Robert M.
Developed theory of instruction which focuses on instruction and how it relates to what is already known about learning. Developed the 5 Domains of Learning, 9 Events of Instruction, and Task Analysis Procedures. Most work in field completed during 1970s-80s.
Gilbert, Thomas
1978 leader in human performance technology and teleconoomics
Glaser, Robert
1960s Developed Criterion-Referenced testing to measure a learner’s performance against the behavioral objective.
Grounded design
Design of instruction which is based on a theory of learning and/or instruction
Group-based instruction
Guided discovery
This instructional style where the student receives information and then is allowed to manipulate the environment in order to see what changes occur. (experienced learners)
Haptic learner
This learner prefers information that he/she can manipulate.
Hierarchical analysis
Higher education
This includes all colleges and universities which can be classified by the doctoral grants and baccalaureate degrees.
This learner learns best when he/she can review each topic in any order to get a whole picture prior to studying details of each topic. (Also known as a cognitive-flexible learner)
Human performance/ Performance Improvement
The latest movement in instructional design and technology shifting focus away from the knowledge set of an employee to the advancing of employee performances and outcomes through a variety of solution not limited to training.
Human performance technology
Technology specifically designed to improve the performance of those being trained. A true understanding of human performance and motivation is required to be successful in the design process of HPT.
Human resources
ID model
Ill-structured Problems
Problems that occur in practical experiences. These problems do not make all factors known. These problems encourage divergent thinking over several disciplines. These problems often do not have a single finite and correct answer.
Implementation plan
Individualized Instruction
Inductive sequencing
Examples of a concept are presented prior the explanation and definition. (see holist learner)
Information processing
Organizing data (or knowledge) such that it can be accessed from the long-term memory and built upon with new data (or knowledge).
Instructional design
The field or process of systematically designing instruction and non-instructional materials
Instructional design and technology
The research, theory, and practice of employing instructional design and instructional media to find a solution to problems of learning or performance.
instructional designer/developer
instructional facilitaties
instructional goals
Instructional Media
Physical method by which instruction is delivered to the learner such as a computer or a slide projector
Instructional strategies
Instructional systems design
Instructional technology
technology used for instructional purposes aka instructional media
Instructor's manual
Intellectual skills
The degree to which a technical system allows learner behaviors to influence other’s behaviors.
Intrinsic Motivation
The drive to do something based on the internal feelings associated; otherwise there is no apparent reward for doing so.
Iterative process
Job aids
Keller, John
Researched motivation as it pertained to instructional design. Developed Keller’s ARCS model.
1959 Developed the Four-Level Model of Evaluation, which assesses the learner reactions to training, assesses the learning acquired, assesses the resultant behavior, and assesses the impact on the organization.
Kirkpatrick's Four Levels of Evaluation
Knowledge integration environment
(KIE) a learning environment which provides students with learning choice while supported with scaffolds to guide then in learning and knowledge construction.
Knowledge management
A new topic in the field of IT. This is the design of a computer-based system which stores and retrieves knowledge necessary for a position or all positions in a workplace system. Knowledge management is changing the way of which hiring and training take place.
In the Media vs. Method debate asserts that media selection does affect learning.
A broad view of a visionary and influential individual who has the respect of others through charisma or through experience.
Learning as participation
Individuals learn by engaging as members of a community; member groups change the practices of their community and recruit additional members; communities are interconnected by mutual members who sustaining common practices creating an organization.
Learner analysis
This learning environment is part of the constructivist paradigm where students take control of their own learning. Students have choices in instructional goals, paths, tools, or resources which increases student motivation
Learner guide
Learner plan
Learning context
Learning environment
Every external influencing factor in learning makes up the learning environment. This can include both physical and abstract things. Examples of environmental components include community, teacher-student relationship, classroom noises, and bulletin boards.
Learning objectives
Goals of instruction which explicitly state specific knowledge or skills acquired by the learner
Learning theories
Most learning theories assume learning occurs as a consequence of the learner’s experiences and interaction with the world. Examples include behavioral learning theories, information processing theory, and situated learning theory.
Lesson plan
Levels of performance
Mager, Robert
1960s Furthered the methodology of writing behavioral objectives in a measurable fashion.
The organization and execution of any plan or group.
Mastery learning
States that an individual’s aptitude in learning is the length of time it takes a person to learn not the individual’s IQ
Matching-test items
Media selection
Meta-data tags
Information within an instructional system that describes the data type linked or contained in the system. (data about data)
Media vs. Method
A debate which questions whether learning is influenced most by media or by method. Two primary researchers addressing this debate are Clark and Kozma.
The driving force for doing something. Motivation may be self-imposed (self-motivation) or externally inspired. Motivation is one of the three major influencing factors of human performance. The other two are capability and opportunity.
Motor skills
This includes any technology which incorporates text, graphics, animation, video or audio. It also includes any media which includes hyperlinking.
Multi-Media learning
Any learning that occurs through the use of multimedia.
Multiple-choice test item
Multiple Intelligences
Gardner’s studies which assert that various types of intelligences exist. (Kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, natural, logical, etc.) The individual instructional styles based on various intelligences can be used to enhance learning.
Technological innovations that occur at the atomic or microscopic level of human viewing.
Narrow initiative
Used to define K-12 philosophical or ideological initiatives of change that are narrow in focus and include ideas that do not contradict the basis of current practice.
Needs assessment
This is the review of all requirements or needs of a process, learner, system, or learner. This could be done through various tools including observation, survey, and/or inventory. Outcomes may include curriculum design, instructional material development, and performance measurement criteria establishment. Often referred to as Instructional Needs Assessment.
Norm-referenced test
Test that compares the performance of a student with the performance of other students.
The desired outcomes for the training event (what the training should accomplish in terms of performance the learners should exhibit in the learning environment in order to be considered competent).
Objectivist Paradigm
Knowledge exists independent of the learner. The knowledge must be obtained from an outside source (instructor) and transferred to the learner through direct instruction.
Object-oriented programming languages
Languages such as C++ or Java which allow the programmer to separate the function of the program from the data elements within a software package. This means that the primary interface and menus will be linked to the data sources such as text passages, graphic images, video and audio files.
One-to-one evaluation
The first stage in formative evaluation, referring to direct interaction between the designer and individual tryout student.
Online learning
Any learning that takes place using the Internet to deliver instruction and information when the instructor and learner are separated by time and/or distance.
The art of teaching or training characterized by formal and narrow rules.
The component of a learning objective that describes what the learner should be able to do at the completing of the instruction.
Performance analysis
An initial analysis of current performances and possible solutions to improving those performances with may or may not include instruction.
Performance discrepancy
(AKA Performance Gap) The gap that exists between the actual performance and the desired performance.
Performance objective
Describes what the learner should be able to do on the job as opposed to what the learner should be able to do within the learning environment as a result of the training.
Performance test items
Test items used to determine whether someone can directly apply specific skills in appropriate situations, usually taking the form of a checklist, where the evaluator checks off or grades appropriate items as the student performs them.
PEST analysis
Analysis done by reviewing information from political, economic, social and technological sources.
Phillips, Jack J
Expert in the field of training evaluation; developed the Five Levels of Evaluation model on which Delta is modeling its own evaluation program.
Pilot test
The last step in the field trial (3rd phase of formative evaluation). Learners who participate in the Pilot Test are expected to meet the objectives in the instruction.
The epistemology that things which are true can be tested, measured, and observed. Absolute truth exists. This epistemology creates a basis for behaviorism.
Posttests are done as an assessment of a learner’s knowledge following instruction in order to compare the results with the pretest to make a determination of learner improvement. It can also be used to improve instruction.
Pretests test is the front-end assessment of a learner’s knowledge prior to instruction to determine prior knowledge for instructional design and for a comparison to a posttest in order to make an improvement analysis.
A condition in which someone desires a certain state of affairs but does not immediately know how to attain it.
Problem-based learning
(PBL) The use of problems or situations with unknowns to apply current knowledge of one or more disciplines. This is frequently practiced in medical training.
Problem space
The central problem for learning around which student activity and learning revolves.
Describes a sequence of tasks.
Product model
One type of model in which in which ISD is commonly applied. The model assumes that a technically sophisticated product, which provides several hours of instruction, will be produced. Eg. the Bergman and Moore Model.
specific, finite task with a well-defined set of predetermined outcomes.
Project-based learning
Learning through extended inquiry where the learner is engaged in problem solving and must qualify, prove or defend his/her answer and or solution.
Project management
The process of working with and organizing groups and resources to accomplish a project with defined objectives, budget, and time restraints
A functional version of a new process and/or product, usually in an unfinished state, whose effectiveness and efficiency to be tested.
Process of assembling produced and/or revised instructional elements, and of testing, revising, summatively evaluating, and preparing the system for marketing.
Psychomotor domain
The portion of the brain which acquires the knowledge necessary to allow the body to make planned and precise movements.
Purpose statement
A brief statement (25 words maximum) in which the overarching goal of the training is clearly and succinctly stated.
Rapid Prototyping
Process of quickly developing a model of a stystem in the early stages of a project and going through a series of tryouts and revision until an acceptable model of the system is produced.
Receptive instructional style
This style of instruction is where a student only receives information from an instructor or some form of media.
An epistemology which states that a pure truth cannot be found only information can be interpreted into personal truths.
The rate of expected outcomes of a technology when implemented by the end users
Resource analysis
Data collected about the resource available to complete the design, development, implementation and evaluation of the training event.
Return on investment
A ratio denoted by the savings or increase in revenue divided by the cost of training or solution
Rule-Using problem
Problems solved by multiple solutions or rules ; most likely ill-structured
Scriven & Markle
1967 Developed models of instructional evaluation that included both summative and formative evaluation
This learner learns best when instruction is presented in a logical and sequential manner. (Also known as a cognitive-restricted learner)
Short-answer test item
Test items used for determining the degree of students factual recall, where they respond to a question with a brief written answer in a designated space, usually below the question.
sequential decision-making events in which students fulfill assigned roles to manage discipline-specific tasks within an environment that models reality according to guidelines provided by the instructor
Situated cases/policy problem
Ambiguous problems with multiple techniques and attributes, relying heavily on context and constraints
Situated learning
Theory of learning that states that individual learning is affected by social and cultural influences.
Situational leadership
Maintaining flexibility in leadership responses according to the unique circumstances
Describes something physical; usually involving motor tasks.
Skinner, B.F.
Studied behaviorism at length. Developed theories of learning based on behavioral outcomes. (see behaviorism.)
Small-group evaluation
The second stage of formative evaluation, referring to the use of a small number of tryout students who study an instructional program wihtout intervention from the designer and are tested to assess the effectiveness of the instruction.
This is the person who is paying for the project and who has requested that the project be undertaken.
A design technique for showing as individual scenes the proposed sequence of visual and audio elements in a production using some form of optically projected media, e.g. television, slide/tape, interactive video.
Story problem
A problem that situates an algorithm in a particular context.
Focusing instruction on the instructional goals over the preferred learning style.
1971 Developed the evaluation model known as CIPP or context, input, process, and product.
Subject matter expert (SME)
A professional who has expertise in a particular subject. These individuals are key in preparing useful solutions to subject specific problems/needs.
Summative assessment
Assessing a design or product to determine its overall value or worth
Summative evaluation
The process of collecting data following implementation (of at least one training class/event) in order to determine how ell it satisfies the instructional goals.
Synthetic battlefields
An Airforce technique in simulating battle when trainees are distributed across various locations. Simulators located in a variety of areas are connected through a network for training.
Group of interrelated components that are interdependent, dynamic, synergistic, and dynamic that work together to accomplish a common goal.
System model
One type of model in which ISD is commonly applied. The model assumes that a team of developers will develop large amounts of instruction such as entire courses or a curriculum. Eg. the Dick & Carey model. The model usually begins with a data collection phase in order to determine the feasibility and desirability of implementing instruction as a solution to the problem.
Step-by-step, an organized linear pattern
Multi-dimensionally influenced.
Systems theory
Systems theory is the study of system components and relationships. Systems theory states that all systems are comprised of two or more components working together to achieve a common goal of maintenance.
Tactical/Strategic performance problem
Problems applying complex activity structures to perform a task (real-time) while maintaining situational awareness.
Task analysis
A process of identifying, sequencing, and relating the tasks and subtasks that should be performed in order to meet learning objectives.
Task inventory
Inventories the critical outputs of the performance that are required to meet the training goals; is used in the training design to help determine what determine what the learner needs to learn.
Any practical art using scientific knowledge.
Technology-base training
Training conducted using a combination of technology not limited to the computer, robots, simulators, etc.
Technology integration
The added use of technology within an already existent environment or curriculum.
technology resources
Include computer, video monitor, LCD (Laptop) projector, Flip chart, etc. It is important to evaluate the available technology for training delivery.
Study of human performance technology systems. States that Performance=Behavior which leads to Competence; states that Worthy Performance=Value divided by Cost
terminal objectives
Several large objectives that denote the destination expected as the conclusion of the training event; aka TPOs (terminal performance objectives); similar to terminal tasks or instructional goals.
test criteria
The comopnent of a learning objective that describes the quality or standard of performance that will be considered acceptable.
testing strategy
The type of evaluation conducted during the training in order to determine if the learner met the specified objective (performance, criteria and condition); is congruent with the related task.
Wrote Education: A First Book in 1912 which marked the beginning of the field of education as a research science.
The person (Instructor or Facilitator)who will be presenting the portions of the training that require lecture, facilitation, or other types of live coordination.
training delivery systems
Troubleshooting problem
Problems calling for fault-state diagnosis, ie what is the cause of the problem and what are the symptoms
true-false test items
A test item consisting of a short statement with which the person being tested indicates agreement or disagreement.
The testing of a prototype or some subset of its elements, under actual or simulated conditions that are representative of those in the targeted system.
Tyler, Ralph
1930s advanced the use of behavior and instructional objectives as well as formative evaluation
The measure of a course reaching its instructional goals by being grounded in psychological and learning research and theories.
Verbal learner
This learner prefers lectures or written text as an instructional style.
verbal information
A network of orgainized knowledge describes verbal information.
Visual learner
This learner optimizes learning when information is presented graphically.
Visual message design
The practice of designing static (illustrations, drawings) and dynamic (animations, video) images for conveying intended messages
Web-based learning
Learning that takes place using the Web as a medium for informational, supplemental, essential, communal, and/or immersive instruction.
Well-structured Problems
Problems created for practicing learned material. These problems encourage convergent thinking of specific skills and knowledge gained immediately prior. These problems have a finite and correct answer. Often seen in educational and instructional settings for practicing and applying specific skills.