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131 Cards in this Set

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co-evolution
-Should be restricted to situations where it can be shown there is a reciprocal evolutionary effect of adpated insects upon host plants and vice versa.
-Part of co-evolution is that the insect and/or plant can affect the reproduction fitness of the other.
-insect/pollination best. example
trichome
-form of physical defense on plant
-hooked trichomes
-globular trichomes
trenching
insect cuts a trench in a leaf, permits toxic or sticky sap to ooze out of region and not near insect
nectar
The sugary liquid secreted by many flowers.
extrafloral nectaries
-a reward for ants that protect the plant and serves as food for many other insects
-structures that secrete glucose, fructose, sucrose, generally sweeter than phloen (pollen?).
tracking evolution/sequential evolution
-Other insect/plant relationships are not reciprocally effective on the reproductive fitness of the other group, thus this is not co-evolution but sequential or tracking evolution
-An antagonistic relationship between plants and insects
-Since pressure is not mutually shared it is believed that this represents
SEQUENTIAL or TRACKING EVOLUTION, not co-evolution
herbivory
phytophagy
Beltian bodies
A special food made by a plant for insects
-rich in lipids and proteins
-in a mutualistic symbiosis between plant and insect
phytophagy
The eating of plants
angiosperms
flowering plants
stamen
-holds the anther, where pollen grains are developed
-the male part of a flower
Pistil
-female reproductive structures of a flower
-pollen must be transferred from production site to sticky tip (stigma) of pistil
stigma
-sticky tip of pistil
style
the tube part of the pistil, right below the stigma
ovary
-The pollen tube grows and penetrates the female ovary and the sperm nucleus passes down and fertilizes the egg
anther
-pollen grains develop on the anther
Filament
A thread-like structure, especially one at the end of an antenna.
petals
-Pretty!
-can be used as landing platforms
-primarily yellow or blue
-UV nectar guides
pollen
The mass of microspores or male fertilizing elements of flowering plants.
UV reflectance nectar guides
-bee pollinated flowers
-it's what the insects see- an ultraviolet reflective guide
-can have cool patterns
MFO
-a way insects defend themselves from plants
-Enzymes to break down toxic materials-Mixed function oxidases (MFO’s)
monophagous
feeding on a single plant species
Secondary plant chemicals
-can be either phagostimulants or phagodeterrants
-One chemical can have a different effect on different insects and can help explain why some insects don’t feed on some plants.
-Defense against bacteria, molds, fungi, and later herbivores such as insects
polyphagous
feeding on a large number of plant species (general feeding).
plant galls
-Galls are abnormal growths on buds, leaves, stems, and roots.
-Gall formers stimulate the plant to form the abnormal growth (food and shelter).
phagostimulants/phagodeterrants
-secondary plant chemicals
-chemical of a plant can be either a phagostimulant or phagodeterrant, depending on the insect
Example: Chlorogenic acid-in potatoes
a. phagostimulant to Colorado potato beetle
b. phagodeterrent to tobacco hornworm
sequester
-Some insects sequester the plant’s secondary plant chemicals as their own defense against predators
-a reward for an insect
-
Insect growth regulator (IGR)
-Azadirachtin acts as an insect growth regulator (IGR)
-Targets the corpus cardiacum and in turn disrupts the release of various hormones or neurohormones involved in various events such as egg production
aposematic coloration
-warning colors
precocene
-an insect growth regulator
-Precocene-from common bedding plant
botanical insecticides
a. Pyrethrum-from chrysanthemum flowers
b. Nicotine-from tobacco plant
proteinase inhibitor
-in many seeds:
1. Favismo-affects hemoglobin in RBC. Malaria
2. Proteinase inhibitor gene genetically engineered into tobacco plant against the tobacco hornworm.
3. These plants are called genetically engineered plants.
genetic engineering
-Proteinase inhibitor gene genetically engineered into tobacco plant against the tobacco hornworm.
These plants are called genetically engineered plants.
What is pollination?
Pollination: transfer of pollen to receptive stigma of flower. Can be cross-pollination or within.
What is pollination?
Pollination: transfer of pollen to receptive stigma of flower. Can be cross-pollination or within.
Types of pollination
Plants are pollinated in two ways:
1. Wind transfer
2. Pollinators
a. Bats
b. Birds
c. Insects
(1). Beetles-first major pollinators
(2). Hymenoptera
(3). Diptera
(4). Lepidoptera
Know something about the dupe, mimic, model relationship with plants
CHEMICAL MIMICRY IN PLANTS OR FALSE ADVERTISEMENT

-Dupe or organism fooled=insect
-Mimic=plant
-Model=varies as to situation
Know something about the apple maggot, monarch and ant/acacia relationship
plants
THE APPLE MAGGOT
-Adult female locates red fruit using vision and with her ovipositor deposits an egg into the fruit. The hatching larva feeds on the bacteria and the decomposing fruit.
What characteristics would the female’s ovipositor have to have to lay eggs into an apple? REMEMBER: Structure compliments function
1. Sharp and pointed
2. Something about pressure needed to enter. Need to know how much pressure to exert.
3. Is the apple ready? What does it ‘taste’ like?

MONARCH
-they sequester the chemicals in the milkweed for their own benefit against predators

ANT/ACACIA
-mutualism
-acacia gives ant Beltian bodies
-Acacia plants that secrete EFN constantly to provide nourishment to mutualists
Ants seldom eat plants (i.e., the vegetation). Thus, ants are carnivorous.
Non-ant acacias. Over ½ of acacias are Australian in origin. No ant associations.
How are they protected?
Ethiopian and Neotropical-75 species in each region with about 15 of them having ant associations.
As acacias extended their range, it was essential to take up the association with ants.
Do these ant/acacias have chemical defense?
-provides housing
-
entomophagous plants
-Pitcher plants
-Sundew
-venus flytrap
-
Dutch elm disease
For a disease epidemic
to occur one needs 4
things.
1. Vector-bark beetle
2. Disease agent-fungus
3. Host-elm trees
4. Correct environmental
factors, such as temp.,
humidity, etc
WHICH ORDER OF INSECTS IS THE MAIN VECTOR OF AGENTS THAT CAUSE PLANT DISEASES and WHY?
-HOMOPTERA
-The syringe mouthpart-piercing and sucking
The NEEM tree and azadirachtin (IGR)
-Notice the tree in the background has
been stripped of its
leaves by locusts but the neem tree in front has not been defoliated.
-Azadirachtin acts as an insect growth regulator (IGR)
-Targets the corpus cardiacum and in turn disrupts the release of various hormones or neurohormones involved in various events such as egg production
HOW DO INSECTS FIND PLANTS?
1. They find the plant using various receptors and stimuli from the plant
a. Colors and shape of vegetation and fruits They use the compound eyes
b. Odors
They use the antennae

2. The adult female lays the eggs on the correct plant so she has found it for her offspring. She uses various plant stimuli and her compound eyes and/or antennae
biological control
Is a strategy used to control pest populations below a damaging level by using living organisms, such as wasp parasites, to kill the pest organisms and not the use of pesticides
Lac
-Shellac was and is still used in the furniture industry.
-Lac Resin
-Lac Dye
-Lac Wax
cochineal
– scale - Homoptera
-Outside the city of Oaxaca, Mexico, people still carry on the old tradition
of using the scale insect for getting the red dye cochineal.
royal jelly
Royal jelly is the food of queens — not human monarchs, but Queen bees. It's actually a substance secreted from the glands in the heads of worker bees that's fed to bee larvae. After a few days, the larvae that have potential to develop into queens continue to be fed this nectar. Since queen bees are much bigger, live much longer, and are more fertile than all the other bees, this potion is believed by some to impart mystical qualities. In reality, royal jelly is comprised of 60 - 70 percent water, 12 - 15 percent protein, 10 - 16 percent sugars, and 3 - 6 percent fats, with vitamins, salts, and free amino acids making up the rest.
parasite
An organism that spends all or part of its life in close association with another species, taking food from it but giving nothing in return. Ectoparasites live on the outside of their hosts, while endoparasites live inside the host's body.
Predator
An animal that attacks and feeds on other animals, usually smaller and weaker than itself.
wax
-beeswax
Used for making:
1. Candles-prized by early settlers
2. Lipbalms
3. Hand lotions
4. Hand soaps
5. Cosmetics
non-target species
When can biocontrol cause problems?- When the organism being used to control the pest parasitizes non-target, beneficial organism.
Rachel Carson
Rachel Carson was an
early whistle blower
against the pesticide
treadmill our country
had become involved
with. Formation of the
EPA.
The different ways in which insects and their products are used by humans
I. USED IN BIOLOGICAL CONTROL
A. Against weeds
B. Against insect pests
II. POLLINATION
III. PRODUCTS THEY PRODUCE
A. Silk F. Cochineal
B. Honey G. Insect galls
C. Beeswax H. Royal jelly
D. Propolis
E. Lac-Shellac
Where the various products insects produce come from and how do humans use
them.
A. Silk – produced by the silkmoth caterpillar (Bombyx mori) in making its cocoon.
B. Honey- Ancient records of humans utilizing honey as a food source.
C. Beeswax- Used for making:
1. Candles-prized by early settlers
2. Lipbalms
3. Hand lotions
4. Hand soaps
5. Cosmetics

Now replaced by synthetics but is making a
comeback as a natural product.
D. Propolis- Is a glue-like material made from plant resins. The bees use it to seal off
spaces and as a cement. Many cultures use propolis as a medical material. Apparently it has healing and antibacterial properties.
E. Shellac-Shellac was and is still used in the furniture industry.

A scale insect, Laccifer lacca, is the source of natural shellac. The insect lives on various fig trees in the tropics. Mainly India and Burma.
Now replaced by synthetics
F. Cochineal- scale - Homoptera; The color (ruby red grapefruit juice)is due to the natural dye carmine or cochineal; The scale insect produces a white
waxy material that covers and protects the underlying scale.
G. Insect galls- Galls have been used for:
1. Boiled and tanning of leather (high in tannic acid)
2. Dye obtained from some galls used as an ink
H. Royal jelly- Royal jelly is the food of queens — not human monarchs, but Queen bees. It's actually a substance secreted from the glands in the heads of worker bees that's fed to bee larvae. After a few days, the larvae that have potential to develop into queens continue to be fed this nectar. Since queen bees are much bigger, live much longer, and are more fertile than all the other bees, this potion is believed by some to impart mystical qualities. In reality, royal jelly is comprised of 60 - 70 percent water, 12 - 15 percent protein, 10 - 16 percent sugars, and 3 - 6 percent fats, with vitamins, salts, and free amino acids making up the rest.;
enhance immunity
prevent arthritis and multiple sclerosis
treat asthma
slow the signs of aging
stimulate hair growth
improve sexual performance
reduce symptoms of menopause
heal bone fractures
lower cholesterol
alleviate cardiovascular ailments
remedy liver disease, pancreatitis, insomnia, fatigue, ulcers, and digestive and skin disorders
When can biocontrol cause problems?
-When the organism being used to control the pest parasitizes non-target, beneficial organism.
misconception
The world presented to us when we were children, or as adults, contains a lot of misinformation, which gets
put into our memory banks as material that is wrong. Books, movies, TV, and other forms of information often
contain wrong information.
Bubonic plague
-The Black Death
-SIPHONAPTERA OR FLEA
2-8 days after flea bite, fever of 105F
2-3 days later, buboes (swelling of glands)
Buboes burst…red spots on skin
8-10 days of suffering then convalescence
Mortality 30-70%
Malaria
Malaria comes from Italian and means Mal=bad; and aria=air.
-Problem for ancient Greeks
Pathogen: protist (Plasmodium spp.)
Vector: Anopheles mosquitoes
African Sleeping Sickness
Trypanosomiasis

Pathogen-Trypanosome
Vector-Tsetse fly

Pathogen: protist (Trypanosoma spp.)
Vector: tsetse fly
300,000-500,000 cases/year
Fever, headache, joint pain, lethargy, confusion, agitation, coma, and death.
Tsetse fly
Thousands die each year
because of African Sleeping
sickness, whose causative
agent a trypanosome is
vectored by the Tsetse fly.
Alfred Kinsey
In 1948, Alfred Kinsey (1894-1956) caught the world by surprise when he published Sexual Behavior in the Human Male, the first bestseller about sex.  Before the book appeared, Kinsey had labored in obscurity at Indiana University where he was known as a demanding biology professor whose greatest claim to fame was an obscure 1929 volume about wasps.
Valdimir Nabokov
Vladimir Nabokov loved the blues and his most famous butterfly was the Karner blue. Nabakov was equally respected as a lepidopterist and literary giant. He wrote Lolita. He wrote mornings + studied butterflies afternoons. Though the family Lycaenidae contained his favorites, he is known in this area for his work with the Nymphalidae.
Know the different ways in which humans use insects and know some of the
examples
1. Insects as food
2. Insects in symbols, art and jewelry
3. Insects in literature and comics
4. Insects in medicine
5. Insects in religion
6. Insects in the theater and cinema
7. Insects and their impact on history
8. Insects in music and dance
Know the different ways in which humans use insects and know some of the
examples
Examples:

-Roasted stink bugs (Hemiptera) below and
Witchetty grub to the right
-The agave is extremely important to Mexicans.
-Lovely painting by Browning
showing 2 young girls collecting butterflies.
-Wings of morpho butterflies are often used in jewelry.
-Because of their color and intricate design, insects are often used as objects in art and/or jewelry
-comics- Non Sequitor
-literature and movies
-recreation, cricket fighting
-Debriding infected tissue using maggots
Insect sutures in Africa
Toothache alleviated using certain stink bugs
Treatment of arthritis using bee venom
-The Egyptians and the sacred Scarab beetle. Believed to be the mover
of the sun across the horizon.
-The Silkroad
The Black Death-Bubonic Plague
Malaria
Tsetse fly-The Bane of Africa
Cricket fighting
-(operas)Flight of the Bumble Bee
Madame Butterfly
Know that you need a knowledge base to appreciate comics, etc. relating to insects
In order to appreciate certain
things in the literature, etc., and
especially humor, one must have
a broad knowledge base.
Know that maggots are now commonly used to clean (debride) and treat wounds
-Debriding infected tissue using maggots
-Almost every year Dr. Stoffolano gets a request from a hospital for maggots of Phormia regina. These maggots are used to clean wounds that otherwise have escaped treatment with traditional antibiotics. The maggots secrete an antibiotic in their salivary gland secretion that helps heal the wound.
Pesticide resistance
Most pesticides today attack the nervous system of the insect. Since our nervous system is not that different, we are also affected by these pesticides
Insects are developing resistance to these pesticides.
-Overuse of any chemical results in RESISTANCE, RESISTANCE
insect management
-originally: Integrated control Pest resistance +
no emphasis on management
-“Complete freedom from insect attack is neither necessary in most cases for high yields nor appropriate for insect pest management.
insect control
A brief history of insect control:
-Economic Entomology $$$$$$
-Integrated control Pest resistance + no emphasis on management
-Integrated Pest Management
-Health of living things + the environment
I.P.M.
-The evaluation of all available techniques to control the pest complex (e.g. pests on apple ecosystem)
-Consolidate those that work into a unified program to manage the pest populations so that economic damage is avoided and adverse side effects on the environment and beneficial, non-target organisms are minimized.
-The concept of pest eradication works only in a few cases and is worth doing only in a few cases.
-based on Sound Ecological and Economic principles
-
Biological magnification
The increase in a chemical that is not readily broken down as one goes up the food chain
-As chemicals go up the food chain they can become magnified
biological control
What is needed are different ways of killing insects that rely on their biology- one of which is biological control
food chain
-As chemicals go up the food chain they can become magnified
-how different living things are connected in how they eat each other!! :-D
pest residue
-a concept of I.P.M.- Leave a pest residue and know the pest
-So that the predators and parasites will have something to eat
-So that you are treating for the correct pest and can best pick and time your treatments
Ecosystem
A. It is a unit where all of the living organsims live and where the non-living and living materials are cycled.
B. “Self-sufficient habitats where living organisms and non-living environment interact to exchange energy and matter in a continuing cycle.”
Example-Apple orchard ecosystem includes
Apple trees and all organisms living in the orchard (deer, birds, insects, mice, fungi, etc.)
The elements in the soil, the water, the pesticides, herbicides, fungicides, etc., that cycle within that orchard
Agroecosystem
A. Agroecosystems contain less diversity than do natural ecosystems (Monoculture and why do we use this system?)(corn field versus no till)

B. Agroecosystems are subject to sudden alterations. What are some of these alterations?

C. Agroecosystems are more susceptible to pest damage and sudden or catastrophic outbreaks
monoculture
A. Agroecosystems contain less diversity than do natural ecosystems (Monoculture and why do we use this system?)(corn field versus no till)
economic injury level
-pest density where the loss caused by the pest equals in value the cost of the available control measure.
economic action level
-pest density where action or control must take place otherwise it will cost money because of damage to crop
compatible pesticide
-part of "Leave a pest residue & know the pest" is to use compatible pesticides
Why I.P.M. is important
1. Save money
2. Reduce pesticides
3. Safer for
a. environment
b. humans
c. other organisms (non-target species)
d. food we eat
Know what endocrine disruptors do
Endocrine Disruptors-effects on male and female reproductive systems. “Over 50 hormone imposters/persistent organic
pollutants have been identified. Most common are dioxins and organochlorides. Affect fertility. DECLINE IN GLOBAL FERTILITY AND RISING INCIDENCES OF BREAST AND
PROSTATE CANCER.
Know the 7 I.P.M. concepts and something about them
1. Understand the agricultural ecosystem
2. Planning the agroecosystem
3. Cost/benefit and benefit/risk
4. Tolerance of pest damage
5. Leave a pest residue and know the pest
6. Timing of pesticide treatments
7. Public and farmer understanding and acceptance
Why it is best to use different control strategies
Most pesticides today attack the nervous system of the insect. Since our nervous system is not that different, we are also affected by these pesticides
Insects are developing resistance to these pesticides.
vector
An organism that carries disease-causing organisms from one host to another. Diseases where an insect is involved are known as vector borne diseases while if it is an arthropod they are arthropod borne diseases.
pathogen
a disease-causing organism
parasite
a disease-causing organism
arthropod borne host
Diseases where an insect is involved are known as vector borne diseases while if it is an arthropod they are arthropod borne diseases.

HOST-Can be a bird, human, or many other animals
reservoir host
a host that doesn’t get sick but harbors the disease agent. The most famous in history was Typhoid Mary.
entomophobia
-the fear of insects
-This condition stems from what people see in the media and also from others who may suffer the same condition.
envenomization
-Toxins
Half of all U.S. envenomization deaths due to anaphylactic shock
Individual’s immune system overreacts to subsequent exposures
Blood pressure drops…death results
Dermatosis
-Direct Injury from Arthropods
-Infection or disease of the skin
scabies
a. Scabies mites or chigger mites burrow under the skin
b. Animal develops allergies to their feces, eggs, etc.

-Scabies is very contagious
myiasis
-Myiasis is the invasion of tissue by maggots
-Human bot-Dermatobia hominis
-Invasion by maggots by hospital patients and diabetics
stinger
-Stings: Hymenoptera, scorpions, and fire ants
-
mechanical carrier
-PART OF: Arthropods as vectors of various disease causing agents

1. Mechanical carriers
2. Host to the disease agent

1. Mechanical vectors-organism being vectored does not develop within the vector
venom
An allergy results when your body responds
adversely to a foreign protein, which can be
inhailed or injected into your body or get onto
your skins surface.

Many people are very allergic to bee and/or
wasp venom. Also hairs of caterpillars.
fire ants
-aggressive- sting you!
-swarm all over you
-common in the south, increasing
urticating hairs
-Certain caterpillars
-Saddle back caterpillar-Notice the spines of the urticating hairs, which are hollow
black widow
-note red hourglass
-Neurotoxic: disrupts central nervous system
allergy
An allergy results when your body responds
adversely to a foreign protein, which can be
inhailed or injected into your body or get onto
your skins surface.

Many people are very allergic to bee and/or
wasp venom. Also hairs of caterpillars.
Brown recluse
-has violin shape on dorsal surface
-Hematoxin-destroys cells + tissues
dust mites
Inhaled Allergies- Dust mite feces
Biological vector
-organism being vectored does develop with the vector
Trachoma
Trachoma is the world's leading cause of preventable blindness. It is caused by the bacterium, Chlamydia trachomatis, which can be spread easily by hands, clothing, or flies that have come in contact with discharge from the eyes or nose of an infected person. It is most common in poor, third world countries.
Lyme disease
-tick borne
-Pathogen: Borrelia burgdorferi (bacteria)
-Vector: deer tick; mice, raccoons, chipmunks
-Is a serious problem in Massachusetts, especially along the coast and on the islands of Nantucket and Martha’s Vineyard.
-People can also confuse dementia, Alzheimer's and Multiple Sclerosis with Lyme disease since the spirochete can enter the nervous system.
Similar to Syphilis, caused by similar agent, and leads to madness.
Symptoms include a *bulls eye* rash with chronic arthritis
36-48 hours of contact before host gets an infective dose
Most common in Northeast
Babesiosis
-tick borne
lymphatic system
Lymph is the clear fluid
that you see when you have
a blister. Also part of the
lymphatic system are the
lymph glands where nasty
organisms are attacked. Thus,
when you get an infection,
your lymph glands may
become swollen.
nematode
-Pathogen or parasite of dog heartworm, Lymphatic filariasis, Onchocerciasis...
-Nematode larvae picked up during mosquito feeding
-Adult worms reside in the heart and arteries…cause heart failure.
elephantiasis
Over time, inflammation, lymph blockage, and infections result in elephantiasis.

-This swollen condition is due to the blockage of
the lymphatic ducts, thus the lymph collects and
causes a swelling. Because the swollen limbs
look like an elephants, it is called elephantiasis.
Heartworm
-Pathogen or parasite-nematode
-Vector-mosquito
-Nematode larvae picked up during mosquito feeding
-Adult worms reside in the heart and arteries…cause heart failure.
The Black Death
-The Bubonic Plague
2-8 days after flea bite, fever of 105F
2-3 days later, buboes (swelling of glands)
Buboes burst…red spots on skin
8-10 days of suffering then convalescence
Mortality 30-70%

Modern antibiotics are effective if diagnosis occurs quickly.

Pathogen: Yersinia pestis (bacteria)
Vector: Xenopsylla cheopis (oriental rat flea)
Reservoir Host: many rodents
River blindness
-Onchocerciasis
-Subcutaneous worms cause itching and infections
-Ocular damage and blindness occurs in many victims
trypanosome
Thousands die each year
because of African Sleeping
sickness, whose causative
agent a trypanosome is
vectored by the Tsetse fly.
-pathogen of Chagas Disease
Hemiptera
E. Hemipteran borne
1. Chagas disease
Chagas Disease
Pathogen-Trypanosome
Vector-Kissing bug or hemipteran
Host-Humans

Pathogen: protist (Trypanosoma cruzi)
Vector: Kissing bug
Central and South America (50,000 deaths/year)
Rub feces into bites or eyes
Pathogen causes destructive inflammation of tissues
spirochete
-"People can also confuse dementia, Alzheimer's and Multiple Sclerosis
with Lyme disease since the spirochete can enter the nervous system.
Similar to Syphilis, caused by similar agent, and leads to madness."
Tsetse fly
G. Tsetse fly borne
1. African Sleeping Sickness or Trypanosomiasis
sand fly (as a pathogen)
-Biological Vectored Diseases

Leishmaniasis
-Pathogen: Protist (Leishmania spp.)
-Vector: Sandfly
leishmaniasis
-Irregular bouts of fever, substantial weight loss, swelling of the spleen and liver
-If left untreated…100% mortality rate
-Mucocutaneous forms can be disfiguring

Leishmaniasis
Pathogen: Protist (Leishmania spp.)
Vector: Sandfly
typhus
Pathogen: Rickettsia prowazekii (bacteria)
Vector: Head and pubic lice

Strikes in crowded conditions with poor sanitation
Prisons
Refugee camps
wars

Influenced many wars
More soldiers have died from typhus than from enemy actions

1907: vector identified
High losses during WWI
WWII…first war in which typhus claimed fewer lives than enemy action
Due, in part, to DDT

Bacteria in lice feces
Humans breath dried feces
Human scratches bites and mixes feces into wound
Infection begins
fleas
C. Flea borne
1. Bubonic plague
2. Sylvatic plague
head lice/pubic lice
Major problem in U.S.; insecticide resistance
West Nile Virus
Vector-Mosquito
Pathogen-Virus
WHAT FACTORS ARE ESSENTIAL FOR AN EPIDEMIC?
1. VECTOR- An organism that carries disease-causing organisms from one host to another. Diseases where an insect is involved are known as vector borne diseases while if it is an arthropod they are arthropod borne diseases.

2. DISEASE AGENT-Can be a virus, bacterium, protozoan, etc.

3. HOST-Can be a bird, human, or many other animals

4. CORRECT ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
The things that make a vector a good vector.
-They are attracted to humans or animals
-Feed on blood and/or secretions from the host
-They have a mouthpart that permits them to do this. Usually piercing/sucking
Biological Vectored Diseases
A. Tick borne
B. Mosquito borne
C. Flea borne
D. Black fly borne
E. Hemipteran borne
F. Face fly borne
G. Tsetse fly borne
H. Sand fly borne
I. Louse or lice borne
2. Planning the agroecosystem
Before planting, etc., ANTICIPATE pest problems
and ways to avoid it (screening over cabbage)

Don’t develop an agroecosystem in an area or climate, etc., where it is difficult or almost impossible to grow the crop. 1. Birch trees in shopping malls (pesticides needed)
2. Cotton in Arizona (water scarce)

THE SHORT-TERM PROFIT PHILOSOPHY
3. Cost/benefit and benefit/risk
“The use of pesticides (COST) rarely increases yield, rather use prevents loss of yield.”
“The use of pesticides (COST) when they are not
needed is contrary to the I.P.M. philosophy.”

economic injury level-pest density where the loss caused by the pest equals in value the cost of the available control measure.
economic action level-pest density where action or control must take place otherwise it will cost money because of damage to crop
5. Leave a pest residue + know the pest
Why leave a pest residue?
So that the predators and parasites will have something to eat

Why know the pest?
So that you are treating for the correct pest and can best pick and time your treatments

Things to know about the pest a. Attack the weakest link in the pest’s life cycle
b. Know the best way to attack that weakest link
c. Know its natural enemies
d. Know when to treat
e. Use compatible pesticides. WHY?
6. Timing of pesticide treatments
Know the life cycle of the pest
Know effects of weather on treatment and life cycle of the pest
Monitor the pest population
a. Traps baited with ? b. Visual traps (apple mimic and yellow card)
c. I.P.M. scouts