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92 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The basic unit of living things, consisting of a group of individuals which all look more or less alike and which can all breed with each other to produce another generation of similar creatures.
One of the 5 kingdoms of life. This kingdom contains the first type of cells to evolve. It includes the various types of bacteria.
One of the 5 kingdoms of life. It includes those multicellular organisms that possess chlorophyll (the green pigment essential for photosynthesis) and can make their own food using sunlight as an important energy source.
A 'class' of the 'phylum' Arthropoda, distinguished by adults having three body regions: head, thorax, and abdomen; and by having the thorax three-segmented with each segment bearing a pair of legs.
One of the 5 kingdoms of life. It includes mostly unicellular organisms such as protozoans and also the algae.
One of the 5 kingdoms of life. Members of this kingdom lack chlorophyll, cannot carry on photosynthesis.
One of the kingdoms of life, specifically those multicellular organisms referred to as animals. These include the common forms of life such as fish, reptiles, birds, mammals, worms, etc. These forms are composed of many cells and ingest their food.
Something that no longer exists and is known only from its fossil record or specimens saved in museums. Trilobites are good examples of extinct arthropods.
Biological control
The control of pests by employing predators, parasites, or disease; the natural enemies are encouraged and disseminated by man.
Remains of plants or animals that are in someway preserved so that scientists can make some sort of identification.
What is life? How do we know something is living?
1) Living things are organized
2) Have DNA or RNA
3) Respond to stimuli & have regulatory mechnaisms involved in their control
4) Reproduce & grow
5) They metabolize
6) They evolve
7) Need food, oxygen, & water
8) Have a genotype & phenotype
Living things are organized:
a. Organism
b. Systems
c. Organs
d. Tissues
e. Cell types
f. organelles
6 Major Kingdoms
1) Archaebacteria
2) Eubacteria
3) Protista
4) Fungi
5) Plantae
6) Animalia
Binomial system of nomenclature
2 names- genus and species names

Humans are Homo sapiens L.
Hierarchy of classification
Dichotomus key
Device for unlocking what an unknown is by using 2 sets of characters that are dichotomus or branch into 2 pathways
The scientific study of insects and their relatives
Why study insects?
1) Insects vector diseases
2) They are often a nuiscance
3) They destroy crops, homes, & other human products
4) Effects of pesticides on the environment
5) They are food for other organisms
6) They produce certain useful products
7) Important symbols in human cultural, religion, & art
8) They are important to gardeners & farmers:
a. Pollination for seeds & fruits
b. Aesthetics- butterflies
c. Help control other pests
9) They can be a great hobby
10) Important for biodiversity & conservation biology
11) Model systems for at or in: classrooms, Audubon centers, environmental centers, museums, insect zoos
12) Model systems for research
Rachel Carson
Changed our view on pesticides. Wrote "Silent Spring". This led to the creation of the EPA.
Why are insects so successful?
- High reproductive potential
- Ability to disperse
- Ability to fly
- Short generation time
- Small size - millions of micro-ecosystems; small, so can exploit the ecosystem
An organism, such as a mosquito or tick, that carries disease-causing microorganisms from one host to another.
Carolus Linnaeus
Developed the Bionomial system of nomenclature.
The largest group or Phylum in the animal kingdom. Animals in this phylum have their skeleton on the outside, thus it is called an exoskeleton. Their exoskeletons are also made of chitin and they all have jointed legs or appendages. Insects belong to this phylum.
Animals that lack a true backbone made of bone or a spinal column. Often called animals without backbones. All arthropods, including insects lack a true backbone.
The tough horny material, chemically known as a nitrogenous polysaccharide, which makes up the bulk of the insect cuticle, also occurs in other arthropods.
A skeleton located outside the body, as in arthropods.
An arthropod, which are now extinct and known only from the fossil record.
7 Characteristics of Arthropods
1) They have paired segmented or jointed appendages (eg. antenna)
2) They have segmented bodies
3) They respire by gills and/or trachae
4) They have jointed legs
5) They have a chitinous exoskeleton
6) They have bilateral symmetry
7) In order to grow they must molt
5 Major Arthropod Groups
Arachnids, crustacea, millipedes, centipedes, insects
Insects (characteristics)
1) They have mandibles
2) Have 3 body regions (head, thorax, & abdomen)
3) One pair of antennae as adults
4) 3 pairs of legs on thorax as adults
5) Usually 2 pairs of wings as adults
Is a process in arthropods where the old exoskeleton or cuticle is digested, a new one produced, and the old one shed or removed.
Insect Design
- Structure compliments function
- Successful design has undergone evolutionary challenge
- Humans learn a lot about design from both plants (velcrow) and animals (robots)
- Design of living organisms are always undergoing evolutionary pressure
Biological Systems of Animals (including insects)
1) Muscular System
2) Integumentary System
3) Circulatory System
4) Nervous System
5) Skeletal System
6) Digestive System
7) Respiratory System
8) Excretory System
9) Endocrine System
10) Reproductive System
Integumentary System
- Have an exoskeleton- protect internal organs & tissues
- Barrier against entry of pathogens & parasites & pesticides
- Prevents water loss & entrances
Skeletal System
1. Provide attachment sites for muscles
2. Provide support for various tissues
3. Provide protection for internal soft tissues and organs
Similarities and differences between the integumentary or covering system of humans and insects
Similarities-The covering system in both basically serves the same functions
a. The skin of humans is not the same as the exoskeleton of the insect. Thus, it is incorrect to say that insects shed their "skin" when they molt. Instead, they shed their exoskeleton.
a. The integumentary system of insects has a waxy covering, which makes it difficult for pesticides and water to penetrate
b. You can physically remove this waxy layer with things like boric acid and the insect will die from water loss
Similarities and differences between the skeletal system of humans and insects:
1. Similarities-The skeletal system in both basically serves the same functions
2. Differences-
a. Insects do not have bones, humans do.
b. Insects have their skeletal system on the outside and it is called the
exoskeleton, while humans have an internal or endoskeleton.
3. Facts-
a. Insect exoskeleton contains chitin, a carbohydrate molecule that gives the cuticle strength not hardness
b. Humans lack chitin, thus chemicals against this compound should not affect humans
c. Insect colors can be due to color pigments in the cuticle or to structural effects of the cuticle. The structural effect on the light rays is what causes the irridescent colors of many insects.
d. When you eat an arthropod, such as a lobster, crayfish, crab or shrimp, you generally don't eat the cuticle or exoskeleton. When you eat soft shelled crabs, however, you are eating the exoskeleton, just after the molt and before it becomes tanned and hardened.
Musculatory System
-Coordinated movement
- Body support
- Maintain posture
- Powers wings
- Aids in movement of internal visceral & digestive tract
- Powers legs
Similarities and differences between the muscular system of humans and insects:
1. Similarities-
a. The muscular system in both insects and humans basically serves the same functions
b. The structure of the muscle fibers in humans and insects do not differ that much
c. Insects have striated muscles similar to that of humans
2. Differences-
a. Insects do not have smooth muscles, humans do
b. Insects do not have their muscles attached to an internal skeleton by tendons while humans do. Instead, insect muscles are attached to the exoskeleton at points known as apodemes.
3. Facts-
a. Insect muscle can contract rapidly because of the special way the nerves impact the muscle. Thus, some muscles, such as the sound producing mechanims of cicadas, can contract very rapidly.
b. Insects fly using an indirect flight muscle system. This means that the muscles are not directly in contact with the wings but with the cuticle, which springs in an out very rapidly.
Circulatory System
- Transport system for digested food, hormones, & waste
- Seals wound when cuticle is broken or pierced
- Destroy invading pathogens/parasites
- Create hemostatic pressure
- Blood cells don't carry oxygen
Similarities and differences between the circulatory system of humans and insects:
1. Similarities-
a. The circulatory system in both serves the same basic functions
b. Insects can heal a wound just like humans; but, the clotting mechanism is different
2. Differences-
a. Insects do not use red blood cells to carry oxygen to the cells or tissues. Instead, they use the tracheal system to do this
b. Insects do not have red blood cells-A few insects have hemoglobin but, it is not in blood cells but the hemolymph
c. Insects have an open circulatory system while humans have a closed circulatory system
d. Insect circulatory system is located dorsally to the body while in humans it is ventral
3. Facts-
a. Insects can recognize foreign substances or objects within their system and can destroy them using special types of blood cells. These blood cells or better called hemocytes can engulf or encapsulate foreign particles or organisms. Thus, they have an immune system but, very different from that of humans. The immune system of insects has no "memory" like that of humans.
b. Insects do have blood cells or hemocytes
c. Insects have a very simple heart that is located dorsally
Lymphatic System
1. To provide a liquid media, lymph, that bathes all the tissues
2. To provide a filtering system (lymph nodes) that is involved in destroying bacteria, etc.
3. To assist in long-term protection via the immune system against pathogens, etc. Insects lack this, especially long-term.

Insects do not have a separate lymphatic system. Their blood is more correctly called hemolymph, which is part of the circulatory system.
Similarities and differences between the lymphatic system of humans and hemolymph of insects:
. Similarities-
a. Both have fluids (85-90% water) that bath the cells and tissues. In insects it is called hemolymph while in humans it is called lymph
2. Differences-
a. Insects do not have a true lymphatic system, lymph nodes, etc., like humans.
3. Facts-
a. Insects do not have a true lymphatic system, lymph nodes, etc.
Nervous System
- Has sensory organs- eyes, tympanum, antenna, etc.
- Assist in movement (coordination)
- Transfer of nervous messages to glands & muscles
- Assist in controlling short-term events
Similarities and differences between the nervous systemof humans and insects:
1. Similarities-
a. Both have receptors and sense organs that provide the insect with information about their surroundings
b. Both have brains, nerve cells, and nerve cords
2. Differences-
a. The nervous system in insects is located ventrally while in humans it is dorsally.
b. Insects have compound eyes, simple eyes, and antenna while humans do not
3. Facts-
a. Insects can perceive things that we cannot, such as UV light (ultraviolet light)
b. Insects not only can taste with their mouthparts, such as the palps; but, they have taste or chemoreceptors located on their feet and sometimes on their antenna.
c. Some pesticides, such as DDT and the organophosphates and carbamates, are targeted against the insect's nervous system. Because humans have such a similar system, these pesticides can also affect or kill us.
d. Most insects can learn something. Some insects, like the honeybee, can learn a lot more and remember the place, angle from the sun, and distance of a source of nectar or pollen.
Digestive System
- Breaks down large food molecules- mechanically with teeth or other mechanisms, so smaller food molecules can enter the blood
- Chemically break down large food molecules using enzymes
- To assist in getting rid of waste products
Similarities and differences between the digestive system of humans and insects:
1. Similarities-
a. Basically, the digestive systems of both are very similar
b. Insects and humans both have a mouth and an anus
c. Insects and humans both use enzymes to breakdown larger food molecules into smaller molecules
2. Differences-
a. Some insects can digest cellulose (wood) because of the microorganisms in their hindgut while humans cannot do this
b. The lining of the fore and hindgut of insects is lined with cuticle, which is absent in humans
3. Facts-
a. At each molt, the fore and hindgut are shed with the rest of the cuticle. Because some insects, like termites, house symbionts that aid in the digestion of cellulose (wood), they lose their microorganisms and must get them by eating the
feces of other termites. If they were unable to do this, they would starve to death.
b. Insects produce feces called frass. This is very obvious when one raises caterpillars.
Respiratory System
- getting oxygen to cells & getting carbon dioxide out of the system
- filter the air that enters the respiratory system
- assist in flight via the air sacs
Similarities and differences between the respiratory systemor ventilatory system of humans and insects:
1. Similarities-
a. Basically, the respiratory system of both is very similar in function
b. Insects need oxygen and must get rid of carbon dioxide, just like humans
2. Differences-
a. Insects do not have lungs, thus they cannot breathe. Instead, we say they carry on respiration or ventilate
b. Insects do not use the hemoglobin in red blood cells to deliver oxygen to the cells. In fact, most insects lack red blood cells
c. Insects have a separate tubular system, composed of tubes called trachea, and also known as the tracheal system, that delivers gases to and from the cells.
d. Air in insects enters through the openings called spiracles while in humans it enters via the nose or mouth. "
e. Insects do not have noses.
3. Facts-
a. Most aquatic insects use gills to get oxygen and get rid of carbon dioxide
Excretory System
- To assist in the elimination of excretory products (ie urine, urea, uric acid)
- To assist in the reabsorption of water, salts, etc. thus preventing dehydration
Similarities and differences between the excretory system of humans and insects:
1. Similarities-
a. Basically, the excretory system of both is very similar
b. Both humans and insect can produce urea, urine, or uric acid
2. Differences-
a. Insects have excretory structures, known as Malpighian tubules (see diagram above of the insect digestive system to see Malpighian tubules), that are finger-like and hang in the hemolymph. Humans lack Malpighian tubules.
3. Facts-
a. The major excretory product of insects is uric acid, which is not very soluble in water. This way, insects conserve water when they defecate because uric acid doesn't contain much water. Spiders also mainly produce uric acid.
Have you ever seen the white "poop" under a spiders "hangout"? It is white and almost impossible to wash up. This is because it is not very soluble in water.
Endocrine System
- Assist in coordination of long-term events w/ chemicals- hormones or neurohormones
- Produce & release hormones
- Assist in coordination of internal events like digestion, reproduction, etc.
Similarities and differences between the endocrine system of humans and insects:
1. Similarities-
a. Basically, the endocrine system of both is very similar
b. Both humans and insect produce endocrines or hormones that help regulate various bodily functions
2. Differences-
a. Insects have some endocrine glands lacking in humans (e.g., corpora allata that produces juvinile hormone and the ecdysial gland that produces ecdysone or the molting hormone)
b. Insects can enter diapause, which is a stage of reproductive and locomotion cessation and/or growth. This is caused usually by short-day lengths and low temperatures in the fall of the temperate regions. During this diapause, which is controlled by hormones, insects can survive for long periods of time without water, food, and low freezing temperatures. This is what the lady bugs do in the northern states.
3. Facts-
a. Insect produce ecdysone while humans don't. This hormone is the chemical that initiates the molt while humans cannot molt.
b. Insects also produce juvenile hormone while humans cannot. This hormone is important at the molt because it is the determining hormone for what type of cuticle the insect's epidermal cells produce.
Reproductive System
- Produce gamets (egg & sperm)
- Assist in events like egg laying, mating, development of embryo, fertilization, etc.
- Important for the continuation of species
Similarities and differences between the reproductive system of humans and insects:
1. Similarities-
a. Basically, the reproductive system of both is very similar in functions
b. Both humans and insects have gametes (i.e., egg cells and sperm cells)
c. Both usually have internal fertilization where a penis (in insects called the aedeagus) is inserted into the females vagina and sperm is then deposited.
2. Differences-
a. Insects usually deposit their eggs outside the body where they procede to develop while humans maintain the eggs in a uterus. A few insects, like the tsetse fly, has a uterus for egg development.
b. Insect eggs have a shell covering them while humans do not have this.
c. Humans have a lot of parental care while insects usually have none. Social insects, however, do.
3. Facts-
a. Male insects often transfer a chemical to the female when they mate that renders her unreceptive to other males. Thus, she will not remate again until she has laid all of her eggs.
b. Insects often have an ovipositor with which to deposit eggs. Humans do not.
What limitations exist on animals becoming too large?
1) Support of the body by:
a) Skeleton
b) Muscle
2) Water Diffusion
3) Oxygen diffusion

Oxygen- extract energy from food & fuel for locomotion & flight
Epidermal cells

The cellular layer of the integument that secretes or deposits a comparatively thick cuticle on its outer surface.
The innermost layer of the cuticle.
The hard and usually darkened layer of the cuticle lying between the endocuticle and epicuticle.
The tough horny material, chemically known as a nitrogenous polysaccharide, which makes up the bulk of the insect cuticle, also occurs in other arthropods.
The thin, non-chitinous, surface layers of the cuticle.
The insect's outer coat.
Basement membrane
the underlying, non-cellular layer of the
integument. Permits chemicals, etc., to pass from the blood into
the epidermal cells.
brain hormone (PTTH)
As the immature insects feed, their internal body increases and this applies pressure on the exoskeleton. PTTH causes a special gland (ecdysial gland) in the thorax to secrete a molting hormone (ecdysone), which activates the molting process.
Ecdysone causes the epidermis to divide and physically separate from the cuticle.
1. As the immature insects feed, their internal body increases and this applies pressure on the exoskeleton. This pressure causes special stretch receptors to signal the brain to produce and release a hormone called PTTH (or brain hormone) into the blood.

PTTH causes a special gland (ecdysial gland) in the thorax to secrete a molting hormone (ecdysone), which activates the molting process.
2. Ecdysone causes the epidermis to divide and physically separate from the cuticle.
3. Molting gel (contains inactive enzymes such
as chitinase and proteinases) produced in space.
4. New outer epicuticle produced and inactive
enzymes (chitinase + proteinases) activated.
5. Endocuticle digested away and reabsorbed
6. Old endocuticle is digested away leaving only
old epi- and exocuticle.
7. Area of weakness at ecdysial suture due to old
endocuticle being digested away.
8. Increased internal blood pressure due to insect swallowing air or water and taking air into the tracheal system, thus the ecdysial suture breaks.
9. Undifferentiated new procuticle becomes
differentiated into new exo- and endocuticle

10. The insect then works its way out of the old exoskeleton in a soft, pliant state. The insect’s blood pressure then returns to normal.

A final hormone, bursicon, is released which causes the new exoskeleton to harden by going through a process called tanning and darkening due to melanin or pigment formation.
3 hormones involved in molting
PTTH (or brain hormone)
Intersegmental membranes
Sclerites (the hard, rigid plates of the exoskeleton) are joined by soft, flexible membranes known as intersegmental membranes.
Name given to the changes that take place during an insect's life as it turns from a young animal to an adult. These changes may be gradual and not too large, as in the grasshopper, and metamorphosis is then said to be partial or incomplete. On the other hand, the changes may be much greater and they may take place in one big step - as in the butterflies and moths, which change from caterpillars to adults during the pupal stage. Metamorphosis of this kind is said to be complete.
Name given to a young insect which is markedly different from the adult: caterpillars and fly maggots are good examples.
Pupa (pl., pupae)
The 3rd stage in the life history of butterflies and other insects undergoing a complete metamorphosis during which the larval body is rebuilt into that of the adult insect a non-feeding and usually inactive stage.
Name given to the young stages of those insects which undergo a partial metamorphosis. The nymph is usually quite similar to the adult except that its wings are not fully developed. It normally feeds on the same kind of food as the adult.
The pupa of a butterfly.
A case, made partly or completely of silk, which protects the pupa in many insects, especially the moths. The cocoon is made by the larva before it pupates.
An aquatic, gill-bearing nymph.
Wing pads
The undeveloped wings of nymphs and naiads, which appear as two flat structures on each side.
The Life of an Insect
I. Insect life cycles
A. Metamorphosis not evident
B. Gradual metamorphosis
1. With immature living in water
2. With immature living on land
C. Complete metamorphosis
The Life of an Insect (continued)
II. Life stages in insect development
A. Metamorphosis not evident
B. Gradual metamorphosis
1. With immature living in water
2. With immature living on land
C. Complete metamorphosis
The Life of an Insect (continued)
III. Events in the life cycle of an insect
A. Hatching from the egg
B. Growth
C. Molting
D. Metamorphosis
E. Reproduction
D. Death
the Scientific Method
The scientific method is a process by which scientists, collectively and over time, endeavor to construct an accurate (i.e., a reliable, consistent, and non-arbitrary) representation of the world.
What are the steps involved in the Scientific Method?
•1. Making Observations: these can be observations one has made themselves, or they can be the observations of others and our reading.

•2. Forming a Question: this should be based on the observation(s) and your knowledge. Thus, the greater your knowledge base, the better questions you can ask.

•3. Forming a Testable Hypothesis: a hypothesis must be verifiable or falsifiable. For example, “Invisible aliens that only I can see blew out the candle” is not a hypothesis that we can test in an experiment.

•4. Forming a Prediction: this should be based upon the hypothesis.

•5. EXPERIMENTATION OR Testing the Predictions: Done in properly performed, controlled experiments.

•6. Analyzing the Data: often via the use of statistical tests.

•7. Drawing a conclusion: Is based on the results of your data.

•8. Reformulating the Question: if needed because of data analysis.
(Experimental) treatment
When you actually do something to the animal, such as inject a chemical or do an operation to remove a gland.
Controlled variables
things that can be controlled
Uncontrollable variables
Things the experimenter can’t really control or know, such as the physiological state of the animal, genetic differences, etc.
Basic research
Designed to answer a question that at the moment has no application.
Applied research
Goal directed & having an application in mind from the beginning
spontaneous generation
From the time of the ancient Romans, through the Middle Ages, and until the late nineteenth century, it was generally accepted that some life forms arose spontaneously from non-living matter.
When you don’t do anything to that group of organisms but everything else remains the same. This provides a check on the treatment.
Logical search for knowlege about any & all aspects of the universe
using a live animal to test the effectiveness of something
sham control
When you do something to the animal but eliminate the treatment. This is a check on the delivery or action of the treatment.