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50 Cards in this Set

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RADIATION NECROSIS
Cerebral infarction from occlusion of small cerebral vessles that are damaged during high-dose radiation therapy for brain tumors. Typically appears 6 to 18 months after therapy. In severe cases, vascular dementia may develop.
RADICULOPATHY
Lession of the nerve roots.
RANCHO LOS AMIGOS SCALE OF COGNITIVE LEVELS AND EXPECTED BEHAVIORS
Neurobehavioral rating scale used in rehab setting to characterize patient status. 8 Levels.
RANCHO LOS AMIGOS LEVEL I
Unresponsive to all stimuli
RANCHO LOS AMIGOS LEVEL II
Produces non-purposeful, nonspecific reactions to stimuli. Response to pain may be delayed.
RANCHO LOS AMIGOS LEVEL III
Inconsistent reactions that are directly related to the type of stimuli presented. May respond to some commands and to discomfort.
RANCHO LOS AMIGOS LEVEL IV
Disoriented and unaware of present events. Exhibits bizarre and inappropriate behavior. Attention and info processing capacity severely limited.
RANCHO LOS AMIGOS LEVEL V
Alert, and responds to simple commands. Displays random or fragmented responses when task complexity exceeds ability. Ability to learn new info impaired.
RANCHO LOS AMIGOS LEVEL VI
Behavior is goal directed and appropriate, but incorrect responses may result from impaired memory.
RANCHO LOS AMIGOS LEVEL VII
Oriented to setting, but insight, judgement, and problem solving are limited. Routine responses appear robot-like.
RANCHO LOS AMIGOS LEVEL VIII
Can learn new info, but display poor frustration tolerance and impaired abstraction ability.
RANGE OF MOTION (ROM)
The degree to which a joint will move from being fully straightened to being completely bent. Either Passive (PROM) or Active (AROM) movement.
RAPHE NUCLEI
Groups of neurons in the medial pons and medulla that are a major source of ascending serotonergic fibers
RAPID ALTERNATING MOVEMENTS
A test of cerebellar function, palm and then back of hand placed on surface as rapidly as possible. Failure to perform smooth movements is called adiadochokinesia or dysdiadochokinesia.
RAPID EYE MOVEMENT (REM)
Rapid scanning eye movements, occur in clusters, associated with dreaming.
RAVEN'S PROGRESSIVE MATRICES
Mult-choice test of visual-spatial ability and reasoning that consists of a series of visual patterns and analogies. Versions- Coloured (for kids 5 to 11 and adults over 65), Standard (for ages 8 - 65), and Advanced (for above average IQ).
REACTION TIME (RT)
Amount of time between stimulus and response. In a simple RT test, a single stimulus and response are used. In Choice RT (CRT), tasks involve multiple stimuli and response selection is dependent on the specific stimulus presented. RT may be affected by non cognitive factors (e.g., motor deficits, peropheral neuropathy, depression).
RECEIVER OPERATING CHARACTERISTIC CURVE (ROC)
Curve derived from signal detection theory that plots the probability of correctly detecting signal (hits) against the probability of false alarms. Approach has been applied to recognition memory tasks and to the relationship between neuropsych tests and binary outcome prediction (e.g., the presence or absence of a lesion)
RECENCY EFFECT
Tendency to recall items from the end of a list in a free recall task. Absence of recency effect may indicate interference due to problems with attention and concentration.
RECOGNITION
Memory assessed by showing material shown before (i.e., targets) with new items not previously shown (i.e., foils or distractors). 2 strategies- show all targets and foils in an array, and targets selected from entire array, or stimlui are presented sequentially (individually, in pairs, or in a larger group). Response format for latter is often forced choice, which is freqeuntly used in symptom validity testing because precide response probabilities can be calculated.
RECOGNITION MEMORY TEST
Test of verbal and nonverbal memory using single words and unfamiliar male faces as stimuli. After presentation of 50 stimuli, subject is tested in forced choice recognition format. This may be used as a symptom validity test.
RECURRING FIGURES TEST
Test of visual recognition- contains geometric and irregular stimuli. 3 second presentation. S. reports whether stimuli is new or old (recurring)
REDUPLICATIVE PARAMNESIA
Term introduced by Arnold Pick (Czech psychiatrist and neuropathologist) who viewed it as a sign of cerebral disease. Confabulation consisting of a false belief in the duplication of people or places. May be seen during recovery from PTA, patient may indicate that they are in their hometown AND the location of the hopsital at the same time. Pt. is unaware of the contradiction.
REFLEX SYMPATHETIC DYSTROPHY (RSD)
ANS dysfunction characterized by vascular instability, manifests by limb pain and swelling. Can be triggered by stroke, TBI, peripheral nerve injury, and MI.
REGIONAL CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW (rCBF)
Measurement of blood flow within a given brain region, usually based on oxygen turnover rate. Areas of increased blood flow are inferred to be more active during motor and cognitive tasks (and vice versa). Not a de facto index of brain metabolism, as blood flow and metabolism may be uncoupled (e.g., luxury perfusion)
REGRESSION ANALYSIS
Method of statistical analysis where a single outcome variable is related to one or more predictor variables. Typically linear, but curvilinear and non-linear relations are possible. Predictors can be categorical or continuous.
REGRESSION TOWARD THE MEAN
Tendency for extreme scores in a distribution to migrate towards the mean with repeated assessment. Results from the tendency of scores to fall at the tails in part because of chance factors that will not operate again during subsequent testing.
REGULARIZATION ERROR
Reading error associated with surface alexia/dyslexia regarding words with irregular pronunciation in which a common word is substituted with another word that follows regular phonemic pronunciation patterns (e.g., "buzzy" for busy, "sue" for sew).
REHABILITATION
Activities designed to facilitate and maximize recovery of function and maximize accomodation to functional disabilities and handicaps. Frequently provided by a team- physiatrist, neuropsychologist, speech-language pathologist, OT, and PT
REITAN-INDIANA APHASIA SCREENING TEST
Screening instrument of 32 items, tests language, constructional praxis, calculation, and R-L orientation. Does not contribute to the Halstead Impairment Index
REITAN-KLOVE SENSORY PERCEPTUAL EXAM
Part of Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Battery. 5 subtests- Tactile, Auditory, and Visual Imperception, Finger Recognition, Fingertip Number Writing, Tactile Coin Recognition and Tactile Form Recognition. Does not contribute to the Halstead Impairment Index.
RELIABILITY
Degree to which scores on a test are systematic and the measure is free from measurement error (random influence)
RELIABLE CHANGE INDEX (RCI)
Used to determine whether changes present on follow-up testing exceed effects associated with repeated testing
REPTILIAN STARE
refers to the masked face of Parkinson's Disease. Significant decrease in spontaneous eye-blinking.
RESTING TREMOR
Symptom in Parkinson's Disease and is least responsive symptom to levadopa therapy. Anxiety/excitement may increase, absent during sleep.
RETENTION
Persistence of information over time
RETICULAR ACTIVATING SYSTEM (RAS)
Network of nerves in upper brainstem- regulates attention and arousal
RETROACTIVE INHIBITION/INTERFERENCE
Impaired recall of old info due to new learning
RETROGRADE AMNESIA
Loss of memory for events prior to injury. Will shrink over time, but permanent loss of events which occurred close to the injury is common.
RETROSPECTIVE ACCURACY
Probability that, given a particular condition or clinical interest, a specific test finding/pattern will be obtained.
RETT'S DISORDER
Progressive syndrome affecting females. Normal development up to age 1, after which progressive dementia, truncal ataxia, autism, microcephaly, and clumsiness of hands develops.
REVERSAL ERROR
Reading error-reversal of letters. Also called transposition or sequencing error.
RHOMBENCEPHALON
The hindbrain- metencephalon (pons and cerebellum) and myelencephalon (medulla)
RIBOT'S LAW (OF REGRESSION)
Principle that the vulnerability of memory loss to neurological insult is an inverse function of the age of the memory
RIGIDITY
Increased muscle resistance to passive movement
RING ENHANCING LESION
Lesion seen on CT or MRI (with contrast) as a bright circular spot surrounded by dark areas. Seen in toxoplasmosis, abscess, and metastic carcinoma.
ROLANDIC FISSURE
Major sulcus that runs obliquely across superior lateral surface separating frontal and parietal lobes/primary and seconday motor gyri. Also called central suclus.
ROOTING REFLEX
Abnormal reflex elicited by rubbing/scratching near corner of mouth. Positive- puckering or pursing of lips. Considered frontal release sign, but is more common with diffuse disease rather than FL lesion.
RPR
Rapid plasma reagin agglutination test- serologic test for syphilis
RULE BASED READING
Phonologically based process where words are sounded out. Occurs from grapheme to phoneme, or print to sound, conversion rules.