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48 Cards in this Set

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Le Chatelier's principle
when a system in chemical equilibrium is disturbed by a change of temperature, pressure, or concentration, the system shifts in equilibrium to counteract change
when you remove moles of something in an equilibrium reaction, what will happen
it will go towards that to counteract change
If pressure is increased by decreasing volume, what will happen in an equilibrium reaction?
reaction will shift to direction with fewer moles
Kc=
[right side]^stoich coef*...///[left side]^stoich coef
equilibrium increase in temp
-products increased in increase in temp when endothermic reaction
-products increased in decrease of temp in exothermic reaction
Arrhenius acid and base
acid: dissolved in water increases amount of hydronium ions

base: increase amount of hydronium ions when dissolved in water
Bronsted-Lowry acid and base
acid: donates a proton in a proton transfer reaction

base: accepts a proton in a proton transfer reaction
Lewis acid and base
acid: species that can form a covalent bond by accepting an electron pair from another species

base: a species that can form a covalent bond by donating an electron pair to another species
6 strong acids and bases
acids: HClO4, H2SO4, HI, HBr, HCl, HNO3

bases: Hydroxides in group 1 and 2 except berryillium
An acid base reaction will normally go in the dirrection of what?
the weaker acid
In general how does acid strenth relate to the periodic table for H-X acid?
acid strength increases going right and down
In general how does acid strength relate to the periodic table for oxoacids (H-O-Y)?
For a species differing only in Y, acid strength will increase as electronegativety increases with Y.
polarity
when bonded electrons spend more time near one atom than another
electronegativety
a measure of the ability of an atom in a molecule to draw bonding electrons to itself: increase up and right
for oxoacids (H-O-Y), what happens when there are more oxygens? (exclude OH group)
acid strength increases with addition of Oxygens
The acid strength of the anion relates how to its parent ion
negative charge is weaker acid
self ionization
two like molecules react to give ions
ion-product of water equation
Kw= [H30+][OH-]=1.0E-14 at 25degC
concentration of H30+ in basic, neutral, and acid solution
acidic>1.0E-7 M
neutral= 1.0E-7 M
basic< 1.0E-7 M
pH equation
pH= -log [H3O+]
PH of following: stomach acid, Vinegar, Milk, Seawater, Blood, Household ammonia
stomach acid: 1.0
Vinegar: 2.5
Milk: 6.4
Seawater: 7.0-8.3
Blood: 7.4
Household ammonia: 11.9
pH and pOH equation?
pH + pOH= 14.00
best indicator?
bromthymol blue
methyl red
red under pH4, orange after
bromthymol blue
egg color up to 6
light blue at 7
dark blue 8-14
phenolphyline
clear up until 8, pink at 9 and beyond
conjugate acid-base pair
two species in an acid base reaction: differ by the loss or gain of a proton
acid reacting with water to produce hydronium ion and the conjugate base ion
acid ionization or acid dissociation
acid ionization constant
equilibrium constant for the ionization of a weak acid

Ka
why do strong acids not have Ka?
they dissociate 100% complete
degree of ionization
weak electrolyte is the fraction of molecules that react with water to give ions
degree of ionization can be exspressed also how?
percent ionization
if Ka is less than E-3 what?
ignore any additions or subtractions of x in ICE equation
Polyprotic acid
more than 1 H+
second ionization constant is generally what compared to the first?
much smaller
base ionization constant
base-ionization constant for a weak base
hydrolysis of an ion
reaction of an ion with water to produce the conjugate acid and OH- or conjuage base and H30+
salt of a strong base and a strong acid
gives a neutral aqueous solution: NaCl
salt of a strong base and weak acid
gives a basic solution: NaCN
weak base and stong acid
acid solution: NH4Cl
weak base and weak acid
compare Ka of Cation with Kb of anion: larger number either means basic or acidic

NH4CHO2

NH4+ Ka larger than CH02- Kb
Ka and Kb equation
Ka * Kb = Kw
common ion effect
shift in an ionic equilibrium caused by the addition of a solute that provides an ion that takes part in the equilibrium.
buffer
solution of weak acid and conjugate base: has ability to resist any change in pH to some extent
Ksp
solubility product constant is the equilibrium constnat for the solubility of equilibrium of a slightly soluble ionic compound
Ksp depends on what?
temp
Qc<Kc
Qc=Kc
Qc>Kc
Qc<Kc, forward direction
Qc=Kc at equilibrium
Qc>Kc reverse direction
Fractional precipitation
technique of separating two or more ions from a solution by adding a reactant that precipitates first one ions, then another, and so forth