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47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the characteristics of an ideal injectable anesthetic?
Rapid onset & recovery
Lack of tissue toxicity
Lack of adverse cardiovascular & respiratory effects
Rapid metabolism
skeletal muscle relaxation
What are barbiturates used for?
general anesthesia
Do not barbiturates in what types of animals?
Pregnant animals
Animals w/ cardiac disease
Hypoproteinemic animals
acidotic animals
shocky animals
Sighthounds (thiopental & pentobarbital
What barbiturates drug is short acting?
Pentobarbital (Nembutal)
What is the duration of Pentobarbital, a short acting drug?
30 minutes to 2 hours
Which barbiturate drug has the slowest onset?
Pentobarital (Nembutal)
What are the side effects of Pentobarital?
Rough (paddling and thrashing), prolonged recovery, which may take hours to days.
What is pentobarital most commonly used for now.
anticonvulsant or euthanasia
Which barbiturate drug is ultra short-acting?
Thiopental (Pentothal)
What is the duration of Thiopental?
10-20 minutes
What is the onset of action of Thiopental?
30-60 seconds
How does recovery occur when using Thiopental?
recovery occurs as the drug is redistributed to muscle and fat, followed by excretion via hepatic metabolism
How long does recovery take when using Thiopental?
1-2 hours
**recovery may be longer in sighthounds and thin, athletic drugs
Why do you bolus Thiopental 1/3 - 1/2 initial dose?
Debilitated animals may only require 80%
Don't use Thiopental on what type of animals?
What Barbiturate drug is ultra short acting Methylated?
Methohexital (Brevital)
What is the duration of action of Methohexital?
5-10 minutes
What is the onset of action of Methohexital?
15-60 seconds
The recovery time of Methohexital is?
30 minutes
What barbiturate drug is safe for sight hounds?
If Thiopental is a strongly alkaline solution is can cause what if injected perivascularly?
severe tissue damage
What happens in recovery when using Methohexital? What is recommended?
recommend premedicate w/ sedative or tranquilizer
Why should you use Diazepam with Methohexital?
may cause seizures in induction or recovery
What drugs are the cyclohexamines?
Phencyclidine, ketamine, tiletamine
How do cyclohexamines work?
They cause selective CNS stimulation
What are the side effects of cyclohexamines?
exaggerated reflexes - palpebral, pedal, corneal
What type of drug has marked sensitivity to sound, light, and sensory stimuli?
Cyclohexamines (ketamine, tiletamine)
What is apneustic respiration and what type of drug can cause it?
inspiration followed by a prolonged pause and short expiration.
Cyclohexamines (ketamine & tiletamine)
Why are cyclohexamines considered a heart supportive anesthetic?
it does not depress cardiac rate or function
Cyclohexamines has what type of analgesic effect?
Analgesia to skin and limbs significant but visceral analgesia is poor (funky analgesic effect)
Ketamine is primarily excreted through what in cats and dogs?
kidneys in cats
liver in dogs
What is the onset of action of ketamine?
90 seconds IV
Recovery from ketamine takes how long?
2-6 hours
Why do dogs recover quicker than cats when using Ketamine?
the hepatic metabolism in dogs is faster
Why should ketamine be used in combination with a tranquilizer or sedative?
aides in muscle relaxation and prevents excitement during recovery
Why is ketamine/diazepam popular in cats and dogs?
minimal cardiac depression
good muscle relaxation
superior recovery
less risk of seizure
some analgesia
Which drug causes less apneustic respiration than ketamine?
What drug is only available with zolazepam in the drug Telazol?
What is thed disadvantage of Tiletamine?
long, difficult recoveries
What is a neuroleptanalgesia?
a combination of opioid and tranquilizing agent
What is the advantage of a neuroleptanalgesia?
reduces anesthetic dose needed
What is Propofol used for?
short procedures or anesthetic induction
What is a disadvantage of Propofol?
What drug has rapid onset but short duration of action?
Propofol (Diprivan, Rapinovet)
Why should Propofol be given slowly?
can see apnea if injected rapidly IV
What animals should Propofol not be used on?
What is the greatest benefit of Propofol?
smooth induction and recovery, free from excitement