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46 Cards in this Set

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dissolution. First phase of drug action. Has 2 phases: disintergration and dissolution
pharmaceutic phase
breakdown of a tablet into smaller particles
disintergration
dissloving of the smaller particles in the GI fluid before asorbtion
dissolution
time it takes the drug to disintegrate and dissolve to become available for the body to absorb it
Rate Limiting
requires a carrier such as an enzyme or protein to move the drug across a concentration gradient
active absorbtion
Requires a carrier such as an enzyme or protein to move the drug across a concentration gradient.
active absorbtion
unintended mild or severe reactions that are undesirable
adverse reactions
Drugs that produce a response
agonists
Drugs that block a response
antogonist
percentage of the administered drug dose that reaches the systemic circulation
bioavailablity
Accurate test that measures renal function.
creatinine clearance (CLcr)
Process in which the drug becomes available to body fluids and body tissues. Influenced by blood flow, protein-binding effect, and drugs affinity to tissue
distribution
length of time the drug has pharmacologic effects
duration of action
Process of removing drugs and waste from body; Main route is through the kidneys
elimination
Inert substances and fillers.
excipients
process in which the drug passes to the liver first. May lower drug concentration
first - time effect
drugs that are not bound to protein which makes them active and can cause a pharmacological response
free drugs
time it takes for 1/2 of the drug concentration to be eliminated
half-life (t1/2)
Has a wide margin of safety and less danger of producing toxic effects
high therapeutic index
ligand-binding index the site on the receptor in which drugs bind
ligand-binding index
given to achieve a rapid minimum concentration in the plasma. Used when immediate drug response is required
loading dose
narrow margin of safety, dosage might need to be adjusted and drug levels need to be monitored
low therapeutic index
process of breaking down and utilizing substances
metabolism
drugs that affect various receptors or have properties of nonspecificity
non selective drugs
non specific drugs
drugs tha affect various sites and have properties of non selectivity
onset of action
time it takes to reach the minimum effective concentration (MEC) after the drug is administered
passive absorbtion
occurs mostly by diffusion (movement from higher concentration to lower concentraion)
peak action
when the drug has reached it's highest blood or plasma concentration
peak drug level
highest plasma concentration of a drug at a specific time
pharmaceutic phase
first pfase of oral drugs (dissolution)
pharmacodynamics
study of drug concentrations and it's effects on the body
pharmacogenetics
effect of a drug action that varies from a predicted drug response because of genetic factors or hereditary influenece
pinocytosis
process in which cells carry drugs across their membrane bu engulfing the drug particles
placebo effect
psychologic benefit from a compound that may not have the chemical structure of a drug effect
protein-binding effect
as drugs are distributed in the plasma, many are bound in varying degrees (percentages) with protein (mainly albumin)
time it takes for the drug to disintergrate and dissolve to become available for the body to absorb it
rate limiting
receptor families
there are 4: Kinase-linked
ligand-gated ion channels
g protein-coupled
nuclear
side effects
physiologic effects not related to desired drug effects
tachyphylaxis
rapid decrease in the response to the drug. (Acute tolerance)
therapeutic index (TI)
estimates the margin of safety of a drug through the use of a ratio that measures the effective dose and the lethal dose. The closer the ration to 1 the greater the danger of toxicity
therapeutic range (therapeutic window)
drug concentration in plasma that should be between the minimum effective concentration in the plasma and the minimum toxic concentration
time-response curve
evaluates 3 parameters of drug action, onset, peak action, and duration
tolerance
decreased responsiveness of a drug over the course of therapy
toxic effects
can be identified by monitoring the plasma therpeutic range of the drug
toxicity
the extent quality or degree of being poisonous
trough drug level
lowest plasma concentraion of a drug, and it measures the rate at which the drug is eliminated