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56 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Name the four symptoms associated with the inflammatory phase.
Dolar (pain), Calor (heat), tumor (swelling) and rubor (redness)
Long many days does the inflammatory phase usually last?
6 days
What is the initial response in the inflammatory phase?
Name (in order) the stages that comprise the inflammatory phase.
Vasoconstriction, vasodililation, clot formation and phagocytosis.
What chemical causes vasodiliation?
Name the three stages of Inflammation and Repair.
Inflammatory, proliferation and maturation.
What is the duration of the proliferation phase?
3-20 Days
What role do Steroids play in the inflammatory process?
These drugs are used to inhibit the release of Arachidonic Acid
What is the tensile strength of collagen during the proliferation phase?
15% of normal
When does the maturation phase begin?
Day 9
What are the two collagen theories?
Induction and Tension
Describe the Specificity Theory of Pain
The sensation of pain depends on the simulation of specific nerve endings that are specialized for each type of sensation.
Describe the Pattern Theory of Pain
The sensation of pain results from an appropriate intensity or frequency of stimulation of receptors that also respond to other stimuli such as touch, pressure, or temperature.
What chemical causes vasoconstriction?
Under normal circumstances, what pressure is greater, hydrostatic or osmotic?
Osmotic pressure is determined by the concentration of what material?
Proteins (Colloids)
Hydrostatic pressure is determined by what?
Gravity and blood pressure
Differentiate transudate from exudate.
Transudate is the fluide that occurs during inflammation and has very few cells and very little protein. Exudate has more more cells and is cloudy in color.
Define chemotaxis?
The ability of a chemical to attract cells.
What role do leukocytes play in the inflammatory process?
Leukocytes play an important part in clearing the injured site of debris and microorganisms to set the stage for tissue repair.
Increased vascularity is associated with what cardinal signs of inflammation?
Heat (calor) and redness (rubor)
Blockage of lymphatic drainage causes what symptom?
Physical pressure and chemical irritation of sensitive structures causes what symptom?
Name the four events that occur during the inflammatory phase?
Vascular, hemostatic, cellular, and immune
Name the four stages that comprise the Proliferation phase.
Epithelialization, Fibroplasia/Collagen production, wound contracture and Neovascularization
What is the goal of the Proliferation Phase?
Purpose is to cover and impart strength to the injury site.
What is the goal of the Inflammation Phase?
Goal is to destroy, dilute, or isolate the cells or agents that may be at fault.
What is the goal of the Maturation Phase?
Ultimate goal is restoration of the prior function of the injured tissue.
Name the two stages that comprise the Matuartion Phase.
Collagen Synthesis/Lysis Balance and Collegen Fiber Orienation
Define Transduction
Ocurrs when the initial stimulus is converted into electrial activity, in the form of action potentials
A patient is 3 days post injury to a ligament in his knee. Are ROM exercises indicated for this patient? Why or why not?
No, movement to a healing injury is contraindicated during the Inflammatory Phase.
What is the role of A-beta and A-gamma nerves?
Carry impulses from the nonnociceptive receptors, they provide inhibitory stimulti to the substantia gelatinosa
What is the role of Spinal Analgesia in treating pain?
Block nociceptive transmission. Side effects limit application to the short-term control of pain
Define the role of Substance P in pain?
It is a chemcial mediator that is thought to be involved in the transmission of neuropathic and inflammatory pain
What is the role of Acetaminophen?
Analgesic (pain releiver)
Describe the symptoms associated with Chronic Pain?
Deconditioning, changes in the sympathetic nervous system and adrenal activity, reduced production of endogenous opioids, decreased levels of enkephalins (neurotransmitters which block the transmittion of pain at the synapses of nerve fibers)
What is the role of Non steroidal Anti inflammatory Drugs in treating pain?
Have both analgesic (pain releiver) and antiinflamatory properties. They block the release of prostaglandins
How do Opiates decrease pain?
Narcotic drugs which bind to opiate-specific receptors. They provide analgesia (pain relief) by mimicking the effects of endorphins and by inhibiting the release of presynaptic neurotransmitters.
What is the role of Antidepressants in the treatment of pain?
Using to treat chronic pain. The efficacy of these drugs is thought to be related to their effects on sleep, nerve fuction and mood.
What does the term Aseptic Techniques mean?
The methods and procedures used to create and maintain a sterile field. Goal is to prevent infection.
Define Universal Precautions?
Intent is to prevent parenteral, mucous membrane and non-intact (open) skin exposures of health care workers to pathogens in blood and other body fluids and tissues.
What is the purpose of placing a patient in isolation?
Designed to prevent the spread of microorganisms among patients, personnel and visitors.
True or False
When donning sterile gloves, once the package is opened you grab the outside of the glove and insert the opposite hand?
Once the package is opened you are only allowed to touch the inside of the glove with your "non-sterile" hand
What is the single most important means of spreading germs?
Name 4 protective barriers that a healthcare worker may use to prevent contact with infective materials?
What is considered the most important cell during the inflammation phase?
What is exudate?
An extravascular fluid that forms during the inflammation phase. It is different from transudate because it is more viscous and cloudy in color.
What is pus?
An exudate that has a high concentration of leukocytes. It is commonly assoiciated with infection.
When suppurative exudate occus within a solid tissue, it results is what?
An abscess
Define edema?
The accumlation of fluid within the extravascular space and interstitial tissues.
True or False: It is not necessary to wear a mask when treating a patient with MRSA.
True, MRSA is a contact type of isolation
True or False: It is not necessary to wear a mask when treating a patient with chickenpox.
True or False: a N-95 respirator is only used when treating patients who are classified as Droplet precautions.
False, airborne
True or False: A gown needs to be worn when treating a patient with impetigo.
True or False: Gloves need to be worn when treating a patient in contact isolation.
Name the three techniques used to sterilize equipment.
Subjecting the equipement to high pressure steam (autoclave), using ethylene oxide gas and using a dry heat source