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88 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Process the detailed data necessary to update records about the fundamental business operations of the organization
Batch Processing
Medhod of comoputerized processing in qhich business transactions are accumulated over a period of time and prepared for processing as a single unit or batch
Online Transaction Processing (OLTP)
Computerized processing in which each transaction is processed immediately, without the delay of accumulating transactions into a batch
*Objectives of a TPS*
Process data generated by and about transactions; Maintain a high degree of accuracy and integrity; Produce timely documents and reports; Increase labor efficiency; Provide increased service; Build and maintain customer loyalty; Attain competitive advantage
Transaction Processing Activities
Data collection > data editing > data correction > data manipulation > data storage > document production
Data Collection
The process of capturing and gathering all data necessary to complete transactions
Data Editing
The process of checking data for validity and completeness
Data Correction
The process of reentering miskeyed or misscanned data that was found during data editing
Data Manipulation
The process of performing calculations and other data transformations related to business transactions
Data Storage
The process of updating one or more databases with new transactions
Business Continuity Planning
Identificatino of the business process that must be restored firest in the event of a disaster and specification of what actions should be taken and who should take them to restore operations
Disaster Recovery
Actions that must be take to resorte computer operations and services in the event of a disaster
Order Processing Systems
Sems that process order entry, sales configuration, shipment planning, shipment execution, inventor control, invoicing, customer relationship management, and routing and scheduling
Order Entry System
Process that captures the basic data needed to process a customer order (EDI)
Sales Configuration System
Process that ensures that the products and services ordered are sufficient to accomplish the customer's objectives and will work well together
Shipment Planning System
System that determines which open orders wil be filled and from which location they will be shipped
Shipment Execution System
System that coordinates the outflow of all products from the organization, with the objective of delivering quality products on time to customers
Inventory-Control System
System that updates the computerized inventory records to reflect the exact quantity on had of each stock-keeping unit
Encourages follow-up on existing sales activities, increases profitabilty, and improves customer service; may automatically compute discounts, applicable taxes, and other charges
Customer Relationship Management (CRM) System
System that helps a company manage all aspects of customer encounters, including marketing and advertising, sales, customer service after the sale, and programs to retain loyal customers
Purchasing Transaction Processing Systems
Systems that included inventory control, purchase order processing, receiving, and accounts payable
Purchase Order Processing System
System that helps purchasing departments complete their transactions quickly and efficiently
Receiving System
System that creates a record of expected receipts
Accounts Payable System
System that increases an organization's control over purchasing, imporves cash flow, increases profitability, and provides more effective management of current liabilities
Accounting Systems
Systmes that include budget, accoutns receivable, payroll, asset management, and general ledger
Budget Transaction Processing System
System that automates many of the taskes required to amass budget data, istribute it to users, and consolidate the prapared budgets
Accounts Receivable System
System that manages the cash flow of the company by keeping track of the money owed the company on charges for goods sold and services performed
Payroll Journal
A report that contains employees' names, the area where employees worked during the week, hours worked, the pay rate, a premium factor for OT pay, earnings + type,
deductions, and net pay
General Ledger System
System designed to automate financial reporting and data entry
International Issues Faced
Language, varying laws and customs, multiple currencies
Disadvantages: costly, risky; difficult to implement change; difficult to integrate with other systems

Advantages: improvement of work processes; increase in access to data for decision making; upgrade of technology infrastructure
Enables real-time monitoring of business functions=timely analysis of key issues such as quality, availability, customer satisfaction, performance, profitability
Decision Making Process
The first part of problem solving, including three stages: intelligence, design, and choice
5 Stages to Problem Solving Model
Intelligence, Design, Choice, Implementation, Monitoring
Intelligence Stage
The first stage of decision making, in which potential problems or opportunities are identified and defined
Design Stage
The second stage of decision making, in qhich alternative solutions to the problem are developed
Choice Stage
The third stage of decision making, which requires selecting a course of action
Problem Solving
A process that goes beyond decision making to include the implementation stage
Implementation Stage
A stage of problem solving in which a solution is put into effect
Monitoring Stage
Final stage of the problem-solving process, in which decision makers evaluate the implementation
Programmed Decision
Decision made using a rule, procedure, or quantitative method
Nonprogrammed Decision
Decision that deals with unusual or exeptional situations
Optimaization Model
A process to find the best solution, usually the one that will best help the organization meet its goals
Satisficing Model
A model that iwll find a good, but not necessarily the best, problem solution
Commonly accepted guidelines or procedures that usually find a good solution
Scheduled Report
Report produced periodically, or on a schedule, such as daily, weekly, or monthly
Key-Indicator Report
Summary of the previous day's critical activities; typically available at the beginning of each workday
Demand Report
Report developed to give certain information at someone's request
Exception Report
Report automatically produced when a situation is unusual or requires management action
Drill-Down Report
Report providing increasingly detailed data about a situation
Give companies an other organization a competitive advantage by providing the right information to the right pepole in the right format and at the right time
Geographic Information system
A computer system capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographic information- data identified according to its location
Decision support Systems
Handles large amounts of data from different sources; provide report and presentation flexibiilty; offer both textual and graphical orientation; support drill-down analysis; perform complex, sophisticated analysis and comparisons using advanced software; support optimization, satisficing, and heuristic approaches
What-if Analysis
The process of amking hypothetical changes to problem data and observing the impact on the results
Goal-Seeking Analysis
The process of determining the problem data required for a given result
The ability of the DSS to duplicate the features of a real system
Executive Support System (ESS)
Specialized DSS that includes all hardware, software, data, procedures, and people used to assist senior-level executives within the organization
ESS Characteristics
Tailored to individual executives; easy to use; drill-down abilities; support need for external data; can help with situation that have high degree of uncertainty; have future orientation; linked with value-added vusiness processes
ESS Capabilities
Support for defining overall vision; support for strategic planning; support for strategic organizing and staffing; support for strategic control and crisis management
Artificial Intelligence (AI)
The ability of computers to mimic or duplicate the functions of the human brain
AI systems
People, procedures, hardware, software, data, and knowledge needed to develop computer systems and machines that demonstrate characteristics of intelligence
Intelligent Behavior
The ability to learn from experiences and apply knowledge acquired from experience
Nature of Intelligence
Learn from experience and apply knowledge; Handle complex situations; Solve problems when info is missing; Determining what is important; React quickly and correrctly to a new situation; Understand visual images; Process and minpulate symbols; Creative and imaginative; Use heuristics (rule of thumb from expereience)
Expert System
Hardware and software that stores knowledge and makes inference similar to a human expert
Mechanical or computer devices that perform tasks requiring a high degree of precision or that are tedious or hazardous for humans
Vision Systems
The hardware and software that permit computers to capture, store, and manipulate visual images and pictures
Natural Language Processing
Processing that allows the computer to underatnd and react to stagements and commandes made in a "natural" language, such as English
Genetic Algorithm
An approach to solving large complex problems
Intelligent Agent
Consists of programs and a knowledge base used to perfrom a specific task
Characteristics an Expert System
Can explain their reasoning/suggested decisions; dispaly 'intelligent' behavior; draw conclusions from complex relationships; provide portable knowledge; deal with uncertainty
Expert Systems Limitations
Not widely used/tested; difficult to use; limited to relatively narrow problems; cannot readily deal with 'mixed' knowldege; possibility of error; cannot refine its knowledge; difficult to maintain; high development costs; raise legal and ethical concerns
Knowledge Base
A component of an expert system that stores all relevant information, data, rules, cases, and relationships used by the expert system
Fuzzy Logic
A special research area in computer science that allows shades of gray- not all blk/wht
A conditional statement that links given conditions to actions or outcomes
Inference Engine
Part of the expert system that seeks information and relationships from the knowledge base and provides answers, predictions, and suggestions the way a human expert would
Backward Chaining
The process of starting with conclusinos and working backward to the supporting facts
Forward Chaining
The process of starting with the facts and working forward to the conclusions
Comparison between backward and forward chaining
Forward Chaining: can reach conclusions and yield more information with fewere queries to the user than backward chaining; but requires more processing and greater degree of sophistication; Forward chaining is often used by more expensive expert systems
Knowledge Acquisition Facility
Part of the expert system that provided convenient and efficient means of capturing and storing all the components of the knowlege base
The area of knowledge addressed by the expert system
Domain Expert
The individual or group who has the expertise or knowledge one is trying to capture in the expert system
Knowldge Engineer
An individual who has training or experience in the design, development, implementation, and maintenance of an expert system
Knowledge User
The individual or group who uses and benefits from the expert system
Virtual Reality System
A system that enables one or more users to move and react in a computer-simulated environment
Developed for immersive viewing of virtual environments to overcome the often uncomfortable intrusiveness of a head-mounted display; provides the illusion of immersion by projecting stereo images on the alls and floor a a room-sized cube; head tracking system
Head Mounted Disply
Contains a position tracker to monitor the location of the user's head and the direction in whcih the user is looking; matches the direction that the user is looking and displays these images on the HMD
Uses of Virtual Reality
Medicine- surgeons; Education and Training- military, aircraft maintenance; Real Estate Marketing and Tourism- virtual tours; Entertainment- movies
Radio Frequency Identification
Tags that contain small chips with information about products or packages can be quickly scanned to perform inventory control or trace a package as it moves from a supplier to a company to its customers; reduce costs, improve customer service, attains competitive advantage