Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are fallacies?
A psychologically compelling, but logically suspect, pattern of argumentation.
Appeal to the Masses (ad populum)
Appealing to common beliefs, emotions, common practices, and traditions.
Appeal to Pity
Speaker tries to get the audience to pity him.
Appeal to Force
Speaker threatens the audience
Against the Person (ad hominem)

what two kinds are there?
Abusive and Cirumstantial
Circumstantial ad hominem (against the person)
Talking badly about an opponents position. (Hypocrite)
Abusive ad hominem (against the person)
Speaker calls opponents character into question or his associates into question.
Genetic Fallacy
Speaker tries to discredit a claim by disclosing the origin of the claim.
Straw Man
Speaker mischaracterizes an opponents argument
Irrelevant Conclusion
Reach a conclusion different from the issue at hand (the star wars program should be instated because we need protection)
Red Herring (evading the issue)
intentionally straying in order to hide the fact that the argument is bad
Premises have no logical bearing on the conclusion.
Argument from ignorance
Speaker urges audience to disagree with oppenents claim because it hasn't been proven. OR the speaker urges audience to accept his claim b/c it hasn't been proven or disproven
Appeal to innapropriate authority
"Quoting someone who shouldn't be quoted." Using a bad authority.
False Cause (***** Post hoc Ergo Propter Hoc)
"Correlation does not equal causation." Speaker tries to convince his audience that an event was caused by something that did not really cause it.
Hasty Generalization
Speaker infers the truth based upon a small # of cases that concur with the generalization
Fallacy of Accident
The generalization is a premise that allows the speaker to come to a conclusion. Mis-apply a generaliztion to an inapropriate case.
Complex Question
Speaker poses a bad or misleading question to his opponent and then makes an illicit inference from his opponents answer. (question mark)
Begging the Question (petitio principii)
Truth of the conclusion is assumed in the premises (no question mark)
A word appears more than once with a different definition each time
Speaker interprets a statement in the unintended fashion and offers a conclusion based on that. Two different meanings.
Deliberately uses a misleading emphasis. Speaker deliberately makes claims in such a fashion as to lead the audience to infer an improper conclusion
Fallacy of Composition
Speaker argues from parts to whole, or sample to population.
Fallacy of Division
Speaker argues from whole to parts.