Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/139

Click to flip

139 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
mesopotamia
land between the rivers
uh
palestine
where the jews lives
..
sumeria
developed cuneiform
sumErIa
monotheistic
belief in one God
mono- one
polytheistic
belief in many gods
poly= many
cuneiform
writing system with many characters
pictographic
writing based on pictures
picto..
ideographic
writing based on ideas
ideo sounds like..?
phonetic
wrining based on sounds
PHONEtic
mesoamerica
between the americas
mesolithic
middle stone age
paleolithic
old stone age
neolithic
new stone age
phoenicians
developed phonic alphabet
homogeneous
inherently the same
heterogeneous
inherently different
cultural diffusion
the spread of ideas and ways of life from different cultures
negatives that arrived with civilization
prejiduce, fighting, inequalities betwween men and women, dependence
advantages enjoyed by the species Homo Sapien Sapien
awareness of death,complex brains,opposable thumbs
earliest centers of civilizations
mesopotamia, egypt, china, india
Qin dynasty
221-202bce not well liked, made the official language
Han dynasty
202 BCE -220 CE government strengthened
Shang dynasty
dynasty before the Zhou dynasty, some think it is a myth
Zhou dynasty
1029-258 BCE expanded borders but not powerful
bureaucracy
broad government structure with many roles
legalism
harsh way of life, legalists belived that humans were bad, forced discipline
confucianism
confucious taught respect for superiors
daoism
more spiritual
mauryan dynasty
no lasting legacy 322-252 BCE
Gupta dynasty
stable but invaded by Huns 319-535 BCE
Wu Ti
Han emperor 141-87BC most remembered for expanding territory and the Confucian state he organized
Shih Huangdi
emperor of china, built great wall of china 247-221 BC. Qin dynasty
Ashoka
spread Buddhism and India's boundries
Chandra Gupta
no real contribution
Chandragupta
ruled from 320-293 BCE, Ashoka's grandfather
Brahmin
highest educated class
Kshatriya
warriors
Vaishya
middle class: merchants, trader, small businesses
Shudra
lowest class, bad jobs
caste
social grouping
Dynaastic Cycle
rise and fall of dynasties
Mandate of Heaven
belief of right to govern by gods(rebellion,chaos,new gov,prosperity,greed,disasters)
hinduism
indian religion poly and momnotheistioc, supreme god is Brahman
buddhism
indian religion,non-theistic religion,philisophical, follow
Buddha
moksha
liberation from karma (hinduism and buddhism)
nirvana
final state of eternal bliss (buddhism)
dukkha
suffering (buddhism)
dharma
practice of religious life (hinduism and buddhism)
tanha
craving(buddhism)
bodhisattva
"buddha to be" modern day, Buddha's assistant
themes that dominated the development of the classical civilizations
expansion and intergration
nature and relattionship of yin and yang
yin: weak yhang: strong
cannot have one without the other, they exixt on harmony
minoans
non-military, strong navy, tolerant military
mycenaeans
bronze weapons, militaristic government, agricultural
Thebes
in Thessely, third most powerful poleis
Athens
powerful democratic poleis in Thessely
Sparta
military based poleis in the Greek pelopenese
Cleisthenes
tried to weaken traditional regions by making *10 tribes
Solon
improved industry even though he didn't redistribute land
Arete
means striving for excellence
Hoplite
armed infantryman, had shield and spear
Phalanx
rectangular fighting arrangement avg 8 deep
Zeno
taught stoicism could find happiness by lving in harmony with God
Epicurus
founded Epicureanism, believed the universe ran on its own and its goal was happiness
Plato
philosopher, thought philosopher kings should rule
Alexander
invaded Perisa, controlled Syria, Paletine and Eqypt
Philip
wanted to invade Persia, but died, he united the Greek world
Socrates
taught philosophy sentenced to death for corrupting youth of Athens
Aristotle
said that monarchy, aristocracy, and constitutional government were good, but could become bad
Euclid
mathematician
Sophacles
three actors, no chorus in his plays. 7/123 plays are still around
Aristphones
used grotesque masks, obscene jokes in comedies
Thucydides
greatest ancient historian, wrote hitory of pelopenesian war, 2 sources for facts
Hellecnic
Greek
Hellenistic
like Greek
Archimedes
scientist, geometry, inventor, specific gravity, pi
Ptolemy
a Greek mathematician, geographer, astronomer, and astrologer who lived in the Hellenistic culture of Roman Egypt. He may have been a Hellenized Egyptian
Monarchical gov
kings
democratic gov
election
periods in ancient Greek history
bronze age
archaic age
classical age
hellenistic age
ethnic groups that came together to create the ancient Greeks
aeolians
dorians
ionians
regions of ancient Greece
Thessely
Attica
Boetcia
Macedonia
Peloponese
latins
influenced rome, language etc, originally here
Etrscans
came from North, brought urbanization
patricians
upper class, descented from originalsenators
plebiana
common people
Nobiles
select groups of wealthyu, powerful families, oligarchy influenced senaste
optimates
'thre best men' conytrolled senate, wanted oligarchy
populares
'fawning the people' used assemblies to break optimate's rule
Hannibal
used elephants to fight Rome in the second Punic war
Scipio
famous general, defeated Hannibal
Lepidus
eneral, friends with Antony, part of the 2nd triumvate
Augustus
part of 2nd triumvate, crushed armied becamme princeps
Antonius
part of 22nd triumvate, fled to Egypt after Augustus crushed his army
Caesar
in 1st triumvate and became in cahrge, dicator for life,murdered in ides of march
pompey
in 1st triumvate, cinquered many territoies, lost war to Caesar
Crassus
in 1st triumvate, died, got money by burniuing buildings
Gracchus
believed Rokme's problems came from thw decline of the small farmer. he had plecians pass land reform bill
marius
seized Rome, left
Sulla
seized Rome, left the idea to use an army to conquer
Horace
poet
Virgil
distinguished epic poet
Livy
historian, well known
cicero
greatest orator
mithras
agent of the god of light. cult. mithraism
Joshua
aka Jesus- preached about heaven and God, renounced Judism, Chritianity
paul
had a vision; taught that Jesus is the son of God,original sin, opened Chritianity to EVERYONE. had many opponents
James
Jesus' brother, opposed paul
peter
paul's opponent
constantine
Roman emperor, most remembered for the Edict of Milan, which made it legal to be a Christian
Theodosius
Roman emperor from 379 to death. He reunited the eastern and western portions of the empire, last emperor of both the eastern and western Roman empire. made chritianity the official state religion
Diocletian
roman emperor 284-305 brought an end to the "crisis of the 3rd century". his reforms changed the structure of imperial gov and helped stabilize the empire economically and militarily for 100yr
Tacitus
important historian of roman antiquity
Jerome
best known as the translator of the bible
essenes
followers of a religious way of living in Judaism
pharisees
a political party, a social movement, and a school of thought among Jews
zealots
one who is zealous on the behalf of God
sadducees
political party; rivals were the pharisees, priestly group
visisgoths
east germanic tribe. they disturbed the late Roman Empire
ostrogoths
germanic tribe that influenced political events in the late Roman Empire
Vandals
east germanic tribe that entered the late roman empire during the 5th century
Huns
confederation of central asian equestrian nomads with a Turkish speaking aristocracy. famous leader was Attila
Allah
one and only God of Islam.
Muhammad
last of Allah/God's prophets
Ali
was selected to be Umar's successor when
uthman died. early islamic leader and 4th caliph. cousin of
Muhammad.
caliph
Muhammad's successors were called caliphs.
"commander of the faithful"
arabesque
elaborate application of repeating geometric forms that often echo forms of plants and animals. often found in mosques.
shi'ite
elieved they remain loyal to the teachings of Muhammad, the Sunnis beleive the opposite.
sunni
people of the tradition of muhammad. started with Abu Bakr
Sufi
believe in divine love and to help the fellow man. beliefs and practices dedicated to Allah
Fatmids
a sect from the Shi'ites who believes that Ali & Fatima were the rightful caliphs both by descent and divine right
Seljuks
turks. Muslim dynasty that ruled parts of Central Asia and the middle eat from the 11th-14th centuries. set up the "great seljuk empire"
sultan
title of Muslim rulers who had full sovereignty
shar'ia
a law code drawn up by the Ulama to provide Muslims with a set ofprescriptions to regulate their daly lives
Qur'an
holy guidebook, sacred book of Islam
Mecca
where Muh. lived and recieved visions from Allah
Medina
Muh. went there to try and convert the Jewish community to his beliefs
Hegira
1st date of the Islamic calender. flight from Mecca to
Yathrib by Muh.& his followers
Ulama
interpret the schools of thought