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9 Cards in this Set

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Cardinal signs of inflammation?
1. Rubor (redness)
2. Calor (heat)
3. Tumor (swelling)
4. Dolor (pain)
5. Functio laesa (loss of function)
Chain of events with inflammation?
Congestion = vessels dilate, slowing of vascular flow; red flush.

Change in vascular permeability-
- fluid
- exudate

Leukocyte (WBC) exudation
Mediators of Inflammation?
1. Histamines (inital event)

2. Next,
- Kinin system (response to pain)
- Complement system (protein)
- Coagulation system (fibrinogen --> fibrin)

3. Then,
- Prostoglandins (PG)
- Leukotrienes (LT)
Chemokines...
- Small proteins (50 known) that direct the movement of circulating leukocytes to site of inflammation.

- Affect cells by activating surface receptors. Binding activates signalling cascade.
Dependent factors of inflammation?
1. nutrition
2. age
3. blood supply
4. presence of foreign body
5. presence of medication
ACUTE inflammation
Polymorphonuclear leukocytes. AKA:
- PMNs
- POLYs
- Phagocytes
- Neutrophils

TWO PARTS:
1. inflammation
2. repair
A. Regeneration (same tissue)
B. Replacement (fibrous/scar tissue)
CHRONIC inflammation
1. No POLYs.
2. Presence of "round cells:"
- lymphocytes
- plasma cells
- macrophages
3. Fibrosis.
Types of cells and their regenerative capacity?
PROFOUND CAPACITY = labile cells.
(skin, epithelium of GI, bone marrow, sex cells)

INTERMEDIATE CAPACITY = Stable cells
(liver, kidney)

"NO" CAPACITY = Permanent cells
(cardiac muscle, CNS)
How to test for acute inflammation?
1. Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (AKA ESR, Sed rate). Measures settling of RBC in blood sample. FASTER than normal with inflammation.

2. C-Reactive Protein. (CRP)
Some question if CRP measures or causes inflammation.