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41 Cards in this Set

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Mediators of leukocyte margination
Selectins mediate margination. P and E selctins on endothelium bind Sialyl-Lewis on leukocyte; GlyCAM/CD34 on endothelium binds L-selectin on leukocyte
Mediators of leukocyte adhesion
Integrins mediate adhesion. ICAM, VCAM on endothelium bind LFA-1 and VLA on leukocyte
Regulators of leukocyte margination and adhesion
Histamine upregulates P-selectin. IL-1 and TNF induce E-selectin, ICAM and VCAM. Chemotactic agents cause conformational change of LFA-1
Leukocyte adhesion deficiency
Defect of CD18 (beta chain subunit of LFA-1 integrin on leukocytes). Recurrent infections, no pus formation, failure of umbilical cord to detach
Chemotactic factors
N-formyl methionine, leukotriene B4, C5a, IL-8
Opsonins
Fc portion of IgG, c3b, C reactive protein
Chediak-Higashi syndrome
Defect of microtubule polymerization causes defect in chemotaxix and degranulation. Partial albinism, peropheral neuropathy
CGD
NADPH oxidase deficiency. No production of superoxide for respiratory burst. Recurrent catalase+ infections, negative nitroblue tetrazolium test
Arachidonic acid products
AA producedd by phospholipase A2 (inhibited by steroids). Produces leukotrienes, prostaglandins and thromboxane A2
Lypoxigenase pathway
Arachidonic acid is converted to leukotrienes by 5-lypoxigenase. LTB4 --> chemotaxis. LTC4, D4, E4 --> bronchoconstriction
Cycloxigenase pathway
Arachidonic acid is converted to TXA2 and prostaglandins (NSAIDs block). TXA2 --> vasoconstriction, platelet aggregator. PGI2, PGE2, PGF2
Mediators of vasodilation
Histamine , bradikinin, PGI2, PGD2, E2, F2
Mediators of pain
Bradikinin, PGE2
Mediators of increased permeability
Histamine, Bradikinin
Mediators of vasoconstriction
TXA2, LTC4, D4, E4
Mediators of bronchoconstriction
LTC4, D4, E4, bradikinin
Mediators of fever
IL-1, PGD2, E2, F2
Anaphilotoxins
C3a, C5a. Directly stimulate histamine release from basophils, mast cells and platelets
C3b
Opsonin; neutrophils, macrophages and monocytes have C3b receptros
Bradikinin synthesis and actions
Synthesized from activation of prekalikrein by factor XII (Hageman). Kalikrein cleaves HMWK into bradikinin. Vasodilator, increased permeability, brnchoconstrictor, pain
PGE2
Vasodilation in kidneys, increases renal blood flow, increases gastric mucosal blood flow (mucoprotection), activates osteoclasts, fever, pain, maintains ductus arteriosus
Prostacyclin (PGI2)
Vasodilation and inhibits platelet aggregation
IL-1
Stimulates PGE2 synthesis in hypothalamus --> fever; B-cell stimulation to synthesize Ig; osteoclast activation (released by osteoblasts under PTH stimulation); lytic bone lessions of multiple myeloma; increases adhesion molecules in endothelium; increases acute phase reactants
Hageman factor
Activates intrinsic coagulation system, kinin cascade and fibrinolytic system
PGF
Uterine muscle contraction (cause pf primary amenorrhea)
gamma interferon
Produced by CD4 cells and NK cells. Activates macrophages; antiviral properties; class I and class II antigens; increases IL-2, IL-12 production by CD4 cells
IL-2
Produced by CD4 cells. T cell growth factor. Promotes B cell and NK cell proliferation
IL-6
Synthesis of acute phase reactants
Factors that increase adhesion molecule synthesis
C5a, LTB4, IL-1, TNF
Key cells in acute and chronic inflamation
Acute: neutrophil has IgG and C3b receptros; Chronic: macrophage has receptors for IgG and C3b, process antigen and secrete IL-1, IL-12 and TNF
Chronic granulomatous inflamation
Epitheloid cells and multinucleated giant cells surrounded by a rim of lymphocytes with central caseous necrosis
Type I collagen
skin, bones, tendons and most organs
Type II collagen
Cartilage and vitreous humor
Type III collagen
granulation tissue
Type IV collagen
basement membranes
Composition of basement membranes
Has negative charge. Collagen type IV, proteoglycans (heparan sulfate), laminin, fibronectin
Fibronectin
Binds collagen, fibrin and integrins; adhesion glycoprotein of extracellular matrix; chemotactic for fibroblasts and endothelial cells
VEGF
vascular endothelial growth factor; important in angiogenesis
FGF
Fibroblast growth factor; important in angiogenesis
PDGF
Stimulates granulation tissue formation; stimulates proliferation of smooth muscle, fibroblasts and endothelium
Laminin
Adhesion protein in basement membranes; binds type IV collagen, integrins and ECM components