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197 Cards in this Set

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viruses consist of either
______or _________ wrapped w/in a protein nucleocapsid
DNA or RNA
VIRUSES ARE COVERED BY AN ENVELOPE OF _______AND_______
GLYCOPROTEINS AND LIPIDS
T/F VIRUSES POSSESS NO METABOLIC MACHINERY
TRUE
entirely dependent on host cells for _________and__________and are therefore obligate intracellular parasites
protein synthesis and replication
All must attach to receptors on the host cell and achieve entry into the cell through mechanisms that include: (3)
receptor-mediated endocytosis, fusion, and pinocytosis
Once within the cells, the virus uncoats, allowing its nucleic acid to utilize host cellular machinery to reproduce (___________) or to integrate into the host cell (___________).
productive infection
latent infection
influenza virus, cause disease by ________of infected cells
lysis
_____________, do not directly cause cell destruction but may involve the host immune responses in the pathogenesis of disease
hepatitis B virus
_____________, promote neoplastic transformation of infected cells
human T-lymphotropic virus type 1(HTLV-1)
By multiplying within host cells, viruses can avoid ____________antibodies
neutralizing
Some viruses can spread to uninfected cells by
intercellular bridges
viruses capable of persisting latently for prolonged periods
(2)
HSV
HIV
CAPABLE OF GENE REARRANGEMENT
INFLUENZA
___________ : proteins that are responsible for a number of progressively fatal neurologic diseases in humans, such as kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), and familial fatal insomnia, and animal diseases such as scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy ("mad cow disease").
PRIONS
Prions are encoded by
host genes
some prion diseases (e.g., familial CJD) are ________, others, including kuru and new variant CJD are acquired through consumption of infected ____________. There is no known treatment for these disorders
inherited

neural tissue
varied group of organisms that are generally capable of cell-free growth, although some produce disease as intracellular parasites
BACTERIA
COMMON STD CAUSED BY A BACTERIUM WHICH CAN DAMAGE A WOMAN'S REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS
CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS
S/S OF CHLAMYDIA IN MALES
DISCHARGE FROM PENIS
T/F CHLAMYDIA CAN CAUSE "SILENT" INFERTILITY BEFORE A WOMEN RECOGNIZES THE PROB
TRUE
MOST FREQUENTLY REPORTED STD
IN 2004= 929,462 REPORTS
CHLAMYDIA
HOW MANY PEOPLE ARE INFECTED W/ CHLAMYDIA EACH YEAR?
2.8 MILLION
Chlamydiae are also obligate intracellular parasites; they always contain both DNA and RNA, divide by ___________(rather than multiplying by assembly
binary fission
Chlamydia trachomatis causes _________, the major cause of _____________in the developing world, and a variety of sexually transmitted genitourinary disorders
trachoma

blindness
Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common cause of :(3)
atypical pneumonia, bronchitis,
sinusitis
the cause of a common infectious disease of birds, can produce a serious systemic illness with prominent pulmonary manifestations in humans
Chlamydia psittaci
Chlamydiae are susceptible to ________AND ________ antibiotics
tetracyclines and the macrolide
obligate intracellular parasites. They are primarily animal pathogens that generally produce disease in humans through the bite of an insect vector, such as a tick, flea, louse, or mite
Rickettsiae and ehrlichiae
With the exception of Q fever and human ehrlichiosis, _________________is a prominent manifestation of these often disabling febrile illnesses
rash caused by vasculitis
Rickettsiae and ehrlichiae are susceptible to:
tetracyclines and chloramphenicol
smallest free-living organisms and have no cell walls
MYCOPLASMAS
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is an agent of (2)
pharyngitis and pneumonia
primarily agents of genitourinary disease
Mycoplasma hominis Ureaplasma urealyticum
Mycoplasmas are sensitive to
erythromycin, tetracycline
organisms that are not readily seen under the microscope unless stained with silver or viewed under darkfield illumination
SPIROCHETES
4 genera of spirochetes cause disease in humans. Treponema species include the pathogens of :
YAWS
PINTA
BEJAL
SYPHILIS
Y PBS
The illnesses caused by these organisms are chronic and characterized by:
prolonged latency in the host
t/f Penicillin is active against Treponema.
TRUE
LEPTOSPIRA CAUSES:
ACUTE AND SUBACUTE FEBRILE ILLNESSES
BORRELIA ARE ARTHROPOD BORNE THAT CAUSE:
LYME DISEASE
organisms that cannot grow in atmospheric oxygen tensions
ANAEROBES
cause well-defined systemic illnesses such as food poisoning, tetanus, and botulism
Clostridium
Clues to the presence of anaerobic infection include (2)
(1) a foul odor
(2) the presence of gas, which may be seen radiographically
Many pathogenic anaerobes are sensitive to penicillin. exceptions are:
Clostridium difficile, which is almost always sensitive to metronidazole and vancomycin
pink on a properly prepared Gram stain
gram negative bacteria
Gram-negative bacteria are the most common cause of:
cystitis
pyelonephritis
Haemophilus species are common pathogens of the respiratory tract and cause:
otitis media, sinusitis, and pneumonia
cause of meningitis, particularly in children
Haemophilus
Except for Haemophilus species, ___________are uncommon causes of community-acquired pneumonia but are common causes of nosocomial pneumonia.
gram-negative bacteria
Enterobacteriaceae include:
(these are large gram - rods)
Escherichia coli,
Klebsiella,
Enterobacter,
Serratia,
Salmonella,
Shigella,
Proteus
PKSE
The Enterobacteriaceae can be thought of as ____________
gut-related or genitourinary pathogens
cause of enteritis
salmonella
agent of bacterial dysentery
shigella
can cause staghorn calculi (renal stones)
proteus
gram neg cocci
neissaria and moraxella
Neisseria meningitidis is an important cause of _______, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae causes _________
meningitis

gonorrhea
appear deep purple on Gram stain
GRAM-POSITIVE BACTERIA
can infect any organ system. It is a common cause of bacteremia and sepsis. The organism often colonizes the anterior nares
staph aureus
Hospital workers colonized with S. aureus have been responsible for __________
hospital epidemics
Staphylococci tend to form ____________
abscesses
Staphylococcal toxins also mediate the scalded skin syndrome and the multisystem manifestations of :
toxic shock syndrome
GRAM + BACTERIA:
INCREASING PROPORTION IS _____ RESISTANT

_________REMAINS ACTIVE
PEN

VANCOMYCIN
CAUSES UTI'S
S SAPROPYTICUS
CAUSES SKIN INFECTIONS AND PHARYNGITIS
STREPTOCOCCI
the most common cause of bacterial pneumonia and an important cause of meningitis and otitis media; use high dose PCN
strept pneumoniae
acid fast and retain dye when washed
mycobacteria
slow-growing (some require up to 6 weeks to demonstrate growth on solid media), obligate aerobes
TB
an important cause of disseminated infection among patients with AIDS
M. avium complex (MAC)
disease of skin and peripheral nerves
leprosy
produce osteomyelitis and abscess, pneumonia
Nocardia and Actinomyces
tx Nocardia w/:
sulfonamides
oval yeasts that often colonize the mouth, gastrointestinal tract, and vagina of healthy individuals
CANDIDA
may produce disease by overgrowth and/or invasion.
_______often occurs in individuals who are receiving antibiotic or corticosteroid therapy
Candida stomatitis (thrush)
FUNGI COMMONLY CAUSE:

CANDIDA IN THE BLOOD CAN CAUSE:
YEAST INFECTIONS

SEPSIS
Mucosal candidiasis can be treated with
fluconazole
fungus endemic to the Ohio and Mississippi River valleys. Mild febrile syndromes tx w/ ____________
Histoplasma capsulatum

amphotericin B
most common clinical manifestation of infection with this fungus is a chronic meningitis; seen in immunocompressed
Cryptococcus neoformans
mold that causes pneumonia
aspergillus
This organism causes life-threatening pneumonia in patients with impaired cell-mediated immunity; it is the most common major opportunistic pathogen in persons with AIDS
Pneumocystis carinii
Diseases caused by __________are among the most prevalent diseases in the developing world but are uncommon causes of illness in North America.
helminths
HELMINTHS
HOOKWORMS CAUSE:
PINWORMS CAUSE:
GI BLOOD LOSS

ANAL PRURITIS
- SCOTCH TAPE TEST
as a result of infection from a microbial parasite, pathological harm to the host becomes evident
infectious disease
groups of host defense mechanisms:
1. constitutive

2. inducible
common to all healthy animals; provide general protection;
~"natural or innate" resistance
constitutive
defense mechanism that must be induced; not immediate after host is exposed to parasite

involves the immune responses to pathogen causing infection
inducible
skin and mucosal surfaces;
cough and gag reflexes to expel aspirated secretions;
chemical agents such as acids and defensins with antimicrobial properties.
ANATOMIC DEFENSES
These defenses are primarily located at sites with proximate environmental contact
ANATOMIC DEFENSES
interference with anatomic defense mechanisms may increase the risk of:
infection
One of the most important of these humoral defenses is the
complement system
Complement activity results from the sequential interaction of a large number of:
plasma and cell membrane interactive proteins.
The classic complement pathway is activated by:
antibody-coated targets or antigen-antibody complexes
COMPLEMENT ENZYMES ARE INVOLVED IN:
-LYSIS OF CERTAIN BACTERIA, VIRUSES, AND OTHER MICROORGANISMS
-PHAGOCYTIC CHEMOTAXIS
-OPSONIZATION
-INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE
Ig_ AND _ CAN "FIX COMPLEMENT" B/C OF A BINDING SITE ON THE Fc
IgG
IgM
IgG AND Ag "CASCADE REACTION"
1. generate inflammatory factors(C3a, C5a)
2. attract phagocytes
3. enhance phagocytic engulfment
4. lysis of bacterial cells or virus infected cells
Persons with complement deficiencies, particularly deficiencies in terminal components, are especially at risk for repeated infections with gram-negative encapsulated bacteria, especially _________species.
Neisseria
large Y shaped protein
antibody
antibodies are used by the ________system to identify ________and________
immune system

bacteria and viruses
production of antibodies is the main function of:
humoral immune system
immunoglobins are
-found in:
-synthesized and secreted by:
blood,tissue fluids,secretions

plasma cells that are derived from B cells
B cells are activated upon binding to their specific antigen and differentiate into
plasma cells
cells that ingest microorganisms via phagocytosis; also involved with _______
phagocyte

apoptosis
phagocytes are useful in ________ RESPONSE TO TISSUE DAMAGE
IMMUNE SYSTEM
T cells are a type of ______that play a role in __________
WBC

CELL MEDIATED IMMUNITY
PART OF THE INNATE IMMUNE SYS; ATTACK CELLS INFECTED BY MICROBES, BUT NOT MICROBES THEMSELVES
NATURAL KILLER CELLS
PROTEINS PROD BY IMMUNE SYS IN RESPONSE TO VIRUSES, BACTERIA, PARASITES, AND TUMOR CELLS
INTERFERONS
INTERFERONS BELONG TO TO THE LARGE CLASS OF ______KNOWN AS ________
GLYCOPROTEINS

CYTOKINES
IMMUNE RESPONSE NOT INVOLVING Ab BUT MACS AND NK CELLS, AG SPECIFIC T LYMPHOCYTES, AND RELEASE CYTOKINES
CELL MEDIATED IMMUNITY
BRANCH OF IMMUNE SYS W/

PROTECTIVE FX FOUND IN SERUM:

ASSOC W/ CELLS:
HUMORAL

CELLULAR
Streptococcus pneumoniae
The type-specific polysaccharide capsule is a major virulence factor because of its __________properties
antiphagocytic
T/F In the absence of immunity, pneumococci reaching the alveoli are not effectively contained by the host
TRUE
___________ of s. pneumo promotes oxidative burst activity causing destruction of the organism
Opsonization
Capsular polysaccharide also represents an important virulence factor for meningococci
Neisseria meningitidis
pathogenic Neisseria species produce an ___ protease that dissociates the ___ molecule;
IgA

IgA
patients lacking__________ are suceptible to meningococcal infection
C6, C7, or C8
escape intracellular digestion by secreting products that inhibit phagolysosomal fusion
MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS
any agent that can cause trouble to the immune sys
pathogen
first line of defense against dz. not directed at particular pathogen:

defend against particular pathogen:
nonspecific

specific
most important nonspecific defense
skin
tissues that protect the interior surfaces of body;

sticky fluid that traps pathogens
mucous membranes

mucus
trap viruses and bacteria in nose and throat
mucus, cilia, hairs
enzyme breaks down cell wall of bacteria
lysozyme
most common phagocyte (WBC)
neutrophil
substance that triggers the specific defenses of the immune sys
antigen
organs involved in immune response
bone marrow
thymus
lymph nodes
tonsils
adenoids
spleen
manufactures WBCs:

filter pahtogens from lymph:

filters pathogens from blood:
bone marrow

lymph nodes

spleen
T cells mature in _______

_____ directly kill invaders

_____ help B & T cells
Thymus

Cytotoxic Ts

Helper Ts
B and Ts develop capability to prod Abs:

response to similar antigen is faster b/c B cells remember:
primary response

sedondary response
can det harmful or not and self from nonself:

no central control:

infinite possible Abs:

remembers antigens:

nonused cells are discarded, new cells created continuous:
Recognition

Distrib.& Self Regulate

Diversity

Learning & Memory

Metadynamics
TESTS FOR PRESENCE OF CRYPTOCOCCUS *MOST COMMON CNS FUNGUS*
causes pneumonia and can cause meningitis; seen in immunocompressed
INDIA INK
DET PRESENCE OF FUNGI IN SKIN, NAILS OR HAIR
KOH PREP
Herpes blister scrapings are placed on a glass slide, air dried, and stained with Wright stain
TZANCK PREPARATION

"TZANCK god i don't have HERPES"
herpes background looks like ground glass and has dark spots called ________
inclusion bodies
Diseases Often Diagnosed by Detection of Microbial Antigens:
Meningitis
Resp tract infection
GU tract infection
Hep B
Latex agglutination
Immunoflourescence
Enzyme immunoassay
Radioimmunoassay
Examine Host Response:
PMN's
Lymphocytic infiltrates
Eos
Granulomas
Acute Bac.Infection
Virus,Fungal, and mycobac.
Helminthic infection
Fungal Infection
all viral pathogens that can be cultured require ___________in which to grow
eukaryotic cells
**Strep Pneumo**
H flu

Less common: Staph, strep pyogenes, pseudomonas, moraxella
acute sinusitis
bacteria causing CAP
strep pneumo
Hepatitis
liver complications:
pregnancy risk:
fecal-oral:
Has vaccine:
C
E
A,E
A,B
Chronic Hep C tx:
Interferon
Ribaviron
Gram negative bacteria that form a normal part of the human flora. They are a frequent cause of _________in children.
endocarditis
HACEK
Haemophilus aphrophilus and Haemophilus paraphrophilus
Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans
Cardiobacterium hominis
Eikenella corrodens
Kingella kingae
normal bac flora in
skin
nose
mouth
plaque
skin - staph epidemidis
nose - staph aureus
mouth - streptococci
plaque - strept mutans
normal flora for
gingival crevices:
throat:
colon:
vagina:
gingiva - anaerobes
throat - streptococci
colon - fragilis, E coli
vagina - bacillus, E coli
The classical triad of meningitis are:
fever, headache, and nuchal rigidity ("neck stiffness")
Bacterial meningitis is usually caused by:
**Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis
a medical history, a chest X-ray, and a physical examination. It may also include a skin test, a serological test, microbiological smears and cultures
dx tests for TB
Transmission occurs most commonly through blood and blood products, contaminated needles, and sexual contact. High-risk transmission groups include the following: sexual partners of acutely and chronically infected persons, with male homosexuals being at particularly high risk, intravenous drug abusers, infants of infected mothers
HBV
isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol for two months, then isoniazid and rifampicin alone for a further four months
tx for TB
Rheumatic fever Jones Criteria
JONES crITERIA:
· Major criteria:
Joint (arthritis)
Obvious (Cardiac)
Nodule (Rheumatic)
Erythema marginatum
Sydenham chorea
· Minor criteria:
Inflammatory cells (leukocytosis)
Temperature (fever)
ESR/CRP elevated
Raised PR interval
Itself (previous Hx of Rheumatic fever)
Arthralgia
to dx RF, Need 2 major or 1 major and 2 minor criteria, plus evidence of recent ___infection
GAS
mnemonic that can be used to remember the bacteria that cause UTIs is SEEK PP
Staph saprophyticus, E. coli, Enterococcus, Klebsiella, Proteus, Pseudomonas
Lyme Dz. symptoms
1.Acute(early)
2.Chronic
1.Erythema migrans rash

2. Bell's Palsy or meningitis
3. Recurrent arthritis
Rocky Mountain spotted fever is the most severe and most frequently reported ________illness
rickettsial
If allergic to PCN, use:
clindamycin
azithromycin
clarithromycin
Some studies reported a correlation between use of aspirin or other salicylates in children and adolescents who have a viral infection such as influenza or chicken pox and causes liver failure
Reye's syndrome
these bact are assoc w/:
botulinum
C perfringen
clostridium botulinun dz

gas gangrene seen on x-rays
vaccine for hep B

hep A
0,3,6 mo

0,6 mo
10 mil cfu/ml
Bacteremia
+ leukocyte esterases suggests
UTI
Gram - causes ______in hospital pts
sepsis
______ are resistant to gram stains.
mycobacterium
early stage tx: doxycyclin, amoxacillin, cefuroximine, clarithromyacin, azithromyacin
Tx = 14-21 days

late state tx: ceftriaxone 3rd gen cephalosporine
tx for Lyme dz
dental extraction in high risk pt w/ bacterial endocarditis tx w/
amoxicillan or a macrolide: erythromycin
azithromycin (Zithromax®)
clarithromycin (Biaxin®)
dirithromycin (Dynabac®)
roxithromycin (Rulid®, Surlid®)
__________ has replaced pcn and ampicilin for tx of gonorrhea
ceftriaxone
Chlamydiae are susceptible to:
tetracyclines and the macrolide antibiotics(azithromycin)
how do you get g- salmonella/shigella

tx:
water, food, fecal oral, and sex

tx = bactrim or fluoroquinolone
immunocompromised
advanced age
alcohol
risk factors for CAP
immunocompetent are recommeded to get pneumovac at age ___ every _____yrs
65

6
causes nosocomial hospital acquired pneumonia
staph
prob cause of septic arthritis of one joint in young female

labs:
gonococcal

joint tap
# 1 cause of bac meningitis in a kid < 1
s pneumo
immunoglobin assoc w
early response:
mast cell and paracytic infx:
IgM

IgE
Silver stain for ________ and tx with _________
PCP in aids pts

tx = bactrim
walking pneumo causes
chlamydia and mycoplasm
tx of C Difficile:
1. flagyl (AKA Metronidazole)
2. vancomycin
3. stool transplant ?
With the exception of aminoglycosides and certain azalide and macrolide antibiotics, agents (TCN) inhibiting protein synthesis at ribosomal sites are generally ___________.

_______ destroy the cell wall
ex: PCN
bacteriostatic

bactericidal
bacteriostatic
buy AT 30s:

CEll at 50s:
30:aminoglycosides
tetracyclines

50:clarithromycin chloramphenicol, clindamycin, erythromycin
fever >101 for 3 wks.

>105.5
FUO

hyperthermia
name the cause
Q fever:
Lyme dz:
Toxoplasmosis from cat feces:
Leptospirosis from urine of infected dogs, cats, animals:
Brucellosis/Undulant fever:
coxiella burnetii
borrelia burgdorferi
toxoplasma gondii
leptospira interrogans
brucella (cattle,pigs,goats unpasteurized dairy prods)
causes of
malaria

TSS

syphilis and tx
plasmodium

staph aureus

treponema pallidum
tx 2.4 mill Units of PCN
measles assoc with _____ spots:
copplex spots
most common opportunistic pathogen in persons w/ AIDS:

seen in SW;produces pneumonia in immunocompromised pts;
treat w/ ampho B:
PCP

coccidioides immitis
Name the organism;
obligate intracell parasite,
always have DNA and RNA,
divide by binary fission,
depend on host for survival:

leading cause of blindnes in developing world:
chlamydiae

C. Trachomatis
Name the bacteria;
toxin mediates the multi system manifestations of TSS,
Abcess formers:

G - causes renal stones:
Staph aureus

Proteus
prion dz acquired from consumption of infected neural tissue
Kuru
Pneuococcus is assoc w/ what color sputum?

Rice water stools are assoc w/ which pathogen?
rusty

vibrio cholerae
plague causing organism uses rodents and prairie dogs as its vector:
Yersinia Pestis
this animal kills the most humans worldwide:

preferred tx for pneumococcal pneumonia?
mosquitos

PCN G or 3rd gen cephalosporin
agar in which N gonorrhea is grown on?

tx for gonococcal urethritis:
chocolate

250mg IM ceftriaxone
100mg doxycycline po x 7d
Antibodies are large polypeptides that are produced by B lypocytes and plasma cells which may facilitate ingestion of the microbe by phagocytes in a process named?
opsonization
name the Ig;
role in allergy by triggering mast cell activation,mediates responses in parasitic infections:

comprises the earliest immune response:

most prevelent in blood:
IgE

IgM

IgG
people w/ complement deficiencies are at risk for repeated infections w/ which bug?

woman + gonorrhea, + painful cervicitis present w/ what sign?
Neisseria

chandelier sign
_________ means eating cell from greek word 'phagein'
phagocytosis
grey baby

red man syndrome

orange-red urine, tears
chloramphenicol

vancomycin

rifampin
pseudomembranous colitis

tx leprosy
clindamycin

dapson
butterfly appearance

rash on hands
SLE

syphilis
SW

MISS AND OHIO RIVER VALLEYS

STATES EAST OF MISS RIVER AND CENTRAL AMERICA
COCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS

HISTOPLASMOSIS

BLASTOMYCOSIS