Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/88

Click to flip

88 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the science and study of microorganisms called?

How are infectious diseases spread?
Microbiology

Infectious diseases are spread by microorganisms
What are microorganisms? How can they be seen?
Very small living organisms only viewable through a microscope
What can all organisms be divided into?
Prokaryotes and eukaryotes
What five things make up a prokaryote?

Two things that are prokaryotes?
Ability to reproduce
Ability to metabolise
No nuclear membrane
Complex cell wall
Always single celled

Prokaryotes are all bacteria and lower organisms
What DO eukaryotes have?
Animal cells?
Plant cells?
Example of a eurkarytoe?
A nucleus
Animal cells: No cell wall
Plant cells: Cell wall

pROTOZOA
What do we call things that do and dont cause disease?
Pathogenic or non pathogenic.
four things every micro organism has a different need for?
Nutrients
Oxygen
PH
Temperature
How do we tell which microorganism has grown?
Change the needs.
Simple definition of bacteria?
Size and shape?
Unicellular oganism that does not require living tissue to survive.
The size and shape varies
Rod shape?
Spiral shape?
Spherical shape?
Bacilli
Spirochetes
Cocci
Describing a bacterium:
Tail?
Hairs?
Outer capsule?
Tail = flagela
Hairs = pili
Outer capsule = capsule
Describing a bacterium:
Media capsule?
Inner capsule?
Liquid inside?
Little dots?
Media capsule = cell wall
Inner capsule = Cytoplasmic membrane
Liquid inside = cytoplasm
Little dots = ribosomes
Describing a bacterium:
Strings inside?
Strings inside = nucleoid
What is gram positive and gram negative?

Gram positive?
Gram negative?
The colour a bacteria stails in a petri dish that denotes its classification.

Gram+ = Bacteria turns puple/blue dye
Gram-= Bacteria turns red/pink dye
What does the gram+ or - tell us?
Gives us a clue to the cell wall of the bacteria.
What is an exotoxin? How toxic? What do they do?
What is an endotoxin? How toxic? Three things they do?
Exotoxin = A toxin released by a living organism. Very toxic. They stimulate antobody/antitoxin production.

Endotoxin = A toxin released by a dead organism. Not as toxic. Cause fever, increase vascular permeability and can cause loss of vascular fluid (endotoxic shock).
An example of what releases endotoxins that can cause endotoxic shock?
Salmonella
Name a type of bacteria and a special function it does to help it invade a host?
Hemolytic streptococci produce hemolysins which break down red blood cells.
What is a spore?
A reproductive structure designed for dispersion and surviving for extended periods of time in unfavourable conditions.
What is it called when a bacteria multiplies into two? THen what is formed?
Binary fision
Colony forming units
Simple definition of a virus?
What do they NEED?
Made of?
Obligate intracellular parasites
They need a living host for replication

Made of a strand of DNA or RNA in a hard protein coat.
How do viruses reproduce?

Special ability?
They inject their RNA or DNA strand into a living oragnism to reproduce

They have the ability to mutate so they can trick the immune system
3 reasons viruses are hard to control?
They hide inside hosts cells

They do not have a metabolism of their own

They do not have many structures of their own
Simply, what is a retrovirus?
An RNA virus that replicates by reverse transcription form RNA to DNA
Other micro organisms divide how?

Chlamydiae spread how?
Rickettsiae spread how?
What do mycoplasmas cause?
Mainly binary fasion similar to virus and bacteria.

Chlamydiae spread sexually
Rickettsiae spread by insects
Mycoplasmas can cause pneumonia.
What are mycoplasmas? Lack of what? Treat?

Typhus fever caused by?
Mycoplasmas are teh smallest cellular microbe. They lack a cell wall and are difficult to treat.

Typhus = Rickettsiae
What is the long filament on a fungus called?

What is a mass of these called?
Hyphae

Mycelium
Definition of a protozoa?

Cell wall?
More complex single celled eukaryotic organism

NO cell wall
What can protozoas form?

Protozoas can be divided into?

Two examples of protozoas?
Protozoas can for cysts

Parasites and symbionts

Tricomonas vaginalis and amoeba
An example of a parasitic protozoa?
Helminths - worms
Where can good flora be found? (5)
Small and large intestine
Nasal cavity
Mouth
Skin
Vagina and perineum
What do the terms mean:
Commensalis
Mutualism
Parasitism
Opportunistic
Transient flora
Commensalism - One benefits, other unaffected (skin)
Mutualism - Both benefit, e coli makes vitamin K
Parasitism - One benefits at others expense (if flora get into other aresa of the body)
Opportunistic - initially commensalism/mutual, turning parasitic
Trransient flora - Present for short periods but not disease
What is an epidemic?
What is a pandemic?
What is an endemic?
Epidemic - Infection in large groups
Pandemic - infection worldwide
Endemic - infection restricted to an area
5 forms of transmission of infection
Droplet in the air
Direct contact
Indirect contact (food)
Vectors (carried by animals)
Nosocomial (via hospital or care facisily)
6 important terms:
Reservoir
Carrier
Vector
Host
Pathogenicity
Virulence
Reservoir - A place where the pathogen exists, reproduces and spreads to new hosts
Carrier - Harbours the disease with no symptoms
Vector - Immediate carrier transporting from reservoir to host
Host - An infected thing
Pathogenicity - the capactiy of microbes to cause disease
Virulence - Degree of pathogenicity of a specific microbe
5 ways to control an infection?
Reduce the reservoir
Stop droplet transmission
Kill the organism
Block the method of transmission
Sterelization
4 diagnostic tests for pathogens?
1. Culture/staning test
2. Blood test
3. Stool test
4. Radiography
3 reasons a blood test might be used?
Bacterial infection = leukocytosis
Viral infection = leukemia
High ESR
Definition of cellulitis?
Cause?
Acute bacterial skin infection resulting in inflamation and characteristically extending to underlying fat tissue. Caused by streptococci
Cellulitis enters (4)?
Minor trauma, ulcers, eczema, surgical incisions. Often from nasal passages.
Cellulitis symptoms (2)
Fever, very red inflamed skin
What is impetido?
Common in?
Caused by? (2)
Spread? (2)
Very infectious skin condition common in children
Caused by staphylococcus aureas or haemolytic strotococci
Sread by direct contact or eating utensils
Symptoms of impetigo? (2)

Mostly effects where?

Treatment?
Large round pustules or patches
Clear blisters

Mostly effects hands and face or skin folds

Antibiotics
Complications of impetigo?
Glomerulonephritis
Definition of candidiasis (oral)?
Caused by?
Transmitted?
Symptom?
Fungal infection of mucous acused by candida albicans
Transmitted directly or indirectly
Inflamation of mucous tissue
Symptoms of herpes simplex virus?

Virus is usually?
Painful lesions around mouth/nose that ulcerate, scab and heal.

Virus is dormant in trigemnial nerve.
HSV spread by? (2)
Complication?
Saliva or directly
Can spread to eyes
2 important facts about HIV and aids?

HIV stands for?
Aids stands for?
It is a pandemic
People do not die from them, they die from opportunistic infections
HIV = human immuno deficiency virus
AIDS = Acquired immune deficiency syndome
2 things HIV is
How many strands of RNA?
Envelope? What does this mean?(2)
Spread?

Symptoms?
HIV = STI attacking the immune system
A retro virus
2 strands of RNA
Surrounded by a lipid envelope making it vulnerable to the environment. Does not survive long outside host.

Spread directly

Initially no symptoms
AIDs is?

Spread?
Aids is the later stages of HIV.

Non transmissible. Later stages of HIV.
What three things does HIV attack?

What does it do to lymphocytes?
Nerve cells, macrophages, T helper cells

It controls their metabolism forcing them to replicate the virus
What ratio?

What test for HIV? When?
As viral count goes up, T cell cont goes down

Blood test 2 weeks - 6 months after infection as this is the incubation period. It takes this long to produce antibodies.
Primary signs of HIV?

Secondary signs? (3)
Primary = flu like symptoms

Secondary = Drastically reduced immune function
Lowered T cell count
Opportunistic infections
Prognosis after diagnosis of HIV to death?

What increases life expectancy?
9 - 11 years

Use of antiretrovirals
What type of virus is HIV?

Three reasons the antibodies cant destroy HIV?
HIV is a retrovirus

HIV hides in its host
Decreased T cells
Mutations in the viral envelope
How is HIV primarily spread?
Two drugs for HIV treatment?
Blood or semen
Antiretrovirals (stop replication)
And Protease inhibitors
What is diptheria?
4 symptoms?
A highly contageous infection affecting mainly the nose and throat
Sore throat, fever, swolen cervical lymph nodes, grey membrane across the tonsils
Diptheria incubation time?
Bacteria?
Prognosis?
Diagnosed?
Transmitted?
2 complications?
Treated?
2-5 days
Cornebacterium dihptheria
Prognosis 5-10% fatal
Diagnosed with a throat culture
Transmitted in droplets
Membrane/growth can block airways, exotoxins can damage heart muscle
Treated with antibiotics and antitoxins
Scarlett fever 3 symptoms?
In who?
Caused by?
Incubation?
Treated with?
Red tongue, sore throat and high temperature
Mainly in children
Caused by streptococci
Incubation time: 3-4 days
Treated with antibiotics
What is measles?
Caused by?
Incubation?
Transmission?
Diagnosis?
Highly infectious skin condition caused by measles virus
Incubation : 11 days
Transmitted in droplets
Diagnosis with a blood test
4 stages of symptoms of measles?
Treatment?
1. Non specific cold symptoms, fever and koplik spots
2. Then rash around mouth muscosa
3. Then fever subsides
4. Then again high fever, measles rash for about 3 days
Treated with a vaccination
What is mumps?
Cause?
Incubation?
Transmission?
Viral infection causing swelling of the parotid gland by mumps virus
Incubation : 16-18 days
Transmitted by droplets
What is rubella?
Cause?
3 symptoms?
Diagnosed?
Usually a harmless viral infection
Rubella virus
Fever, rash, lymph node swelling
Antibody blood test
Chicken pox?
Cause?
Incubation time?
Transmitted?
Highly infectious viral disease usually in children
Varicella zoster virus
Incubation time is 2-3 days
Transmitted air and droplets
During what days is chicken pox infectious?

2 symptoms of chickenpox?
Day one of the exanthema to 6th day of skin conditions

Fever, exanthema
What is shingles? Caused by?

3 symptoms?
Infection of a nerve area caused by variecella zoster virus.

Pain
Paresthesia
Vesicular rash
What is meningitis?
Caused by?
Symptoms?
Meningitis is infection of the meninges

Cause dby meningococcus

Photophobia, severe headache, back pain
Comlication of meningitis?
Diagnosed?
Treated?
Nerve damage
CSF analysis
Antibiotics
Tuberculosis caused by?
Mainly affects?
Something about the bacteria?
Sx?
In the lungs Sx?
Transmission? (3)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Mainly affects the lungs
The bacteria is very resistant
Very different symptoms as different organs can be affected
In the lungs: Fever, cough,night sweats
Droplet, dust, milk
Whooping cough symptoms?
Mostly in?
Caused by what type?
Incubation?
Symptoms:
Coughing attacks
Children
Bacteria
7-14 days
1-2 weeks starts like a cold, progresses into a cough taht cant be treated 3-6 weeks.
Transmitted:
Droplets
What is hepatitis?

Cause? (5)
The most common and most infectious infection of the liver

Heptatitis viruus A B C D and E

Preicteric stage
Genneraly feeling ill

Icteric
Jaundice
Pale Stools
Dark urine

Post icteric stage
What is polimyelitis?
Transmitted?
Initial symptoms>? (4)
What can happen later?
Acute viral infectious disease
Fecal oral route
Fever, fatigue, headache, vomiting
Post polio syndrome
Treatment for poliomyelitis?
Treatment for polio is to increase comfort levels. There is no cure.
How many types of parasite involved in malaria? What is the main one called?

Incubation time?
4 types of parasite
Main one is called plasmodium

Up to 9 months
4 stages of malaria?
Female anopheles mosquito bite
Plasmodium taken up by the liver where it proliferates
Plasmodium spread to RBC
Symptoms begin
Main symptom of maria?

3 symptoms?
Cyclic fever attacks

Chills, fever, sweating
Malaria can be misdiagnosed as?

Two malaria drugs
Flu

Quinine
Preventative lariam
What is dysentry?
Other name for dysentry?
Two types?
Explain each?
3 symptoms?
Acute intestinal infection.
Shigellosis
Bacillary (more common) and amoebic

Extreme diarrhea, stomach pain, bleeding
Transmission?
Prevention?
Diagnosed?
Treatment? (2)
Food or water
Good hygiene
Stool test
Rehydration, antibiotics
What is chlamydia a type of?
Incubation time?
How common?
Male symptoms? (2)
Female symptoms?
A type of STD
Several weeks
One of the most common STDs
White discharge, epididymitis
Often a symptomatic
What is Gonnorhea?
How easily treated? Comlications?
Sx?
Sx in males? (2)
Sx in females? (3)
A type of STI
Easily treated. If left, can cause permanent complications, especialy in women.
Usually A symptomatic
Yellow penile discharge, dysuria
Vaginal discharge, dysuria, pain during sex
How is gonnorhea transmitted?
Treated?
What type of infection?
Any form of sex
Antibiotic injection
Bacterial infection
What type of infection is syphillis?
Transmission? (2)
Incubation? Same as but different?
Syhillis is a bacterial infection and STI
Sexual contact or pregnancy
3-4 weeks. Similar to scarlett fever but weeks instead of days.
3 stages, explain stage 1 of syphillis? (3)
Explain stage 2? (4)
Stage 3? (2)
A hard painless ulcer at site of infection, that heals completely within 4 weeks and then is a syptomatic.

Flat erythema covering entire body. Lumps on genitles. Then a symptomatic but can remain infectious for 2 years if untreated.

Stage 3 1-10 years post infection can involve brain and ehart complications.
Syphillis diagnosis?
Rx / treatment?
Blood test
Penicillin
What is tricomoniasis caused by?
Which is?
Sx in women? (3)
Sx in men? (3)
Transmission?
Treament?
Caused by tricomonas vaginalis which is a protozoa
Itching, burning, frothy pale yellow/green discharge from vagina
A symptomatic in men but dysuria or discharge.
Transmitted by sex
Metronidazole (antibiotic gel)
What is thrush?
Symptoms?
Very common opportunistic infection by candida albicans in vagina.
Itch, dysuria, discharge