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20 Cards in this Set

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What does the typical CSF fluid of a patient with acute bacterial meningitis show?
• 500-10,000 cells/µL (mostly neutrophils)
• glucose < 40 mg/dl
• protein > 150 mg/dl
What types of bacterial meningitis presents without a predominance of neutrophils?
• meningitis precededaby antimicrobial therapy
• Listeria monocytogenes meningitis
• Tuberculous meningitis
• Syphilitic meningitis
What is pleocytosis?
an increase in WBCs (or RBCs) in a bodily fluid
What are manifestations of neurosyphilis?
• stroke-like presentation (general paresis)
• tabes dorsalis
• meningitis presentation (meningovascular)
What is the treatment for H. Flu meningitis?
• Cefotaxime
OR
• Ceftriaxone
What is the treatment for menigitis caused by Listeria monocytogenes?
Ampicillin for a minimum of 15-21 days (with an aminoglycoside for the first 7 days)
What is the most frequent cause of aseptic meningitis?
Viral infection (97% due to enteroviruses)
• coxsackie virus B
• echovirus
• mumps
• Herpes Simplex virus
• Leptospira
What viral cause of aseptic meningitis can cause temporal lobe manifestations?
herpes simplex virus
Patients with this viral cause of meningitis may develop parotitis or orchitis
Mumps
What are theoretical causes of meningeal signs (like Kernig and Brudinski signs)?
meningeal irritation involving the spinal cord
What are possible causative agents for subacute to chronic meningitis?
• Coccidioides
• Cryptococcus
• Histoplasma
• HIV
• Lyme Disease
• Mycobacterium tuberculosis
• Treponema pallidum
What is the most common fungal meningitis?
Cryptococcal meningitis
What is the treatment for cryptococcal meningitis?
• Amphotericin B
OR
• Fluconazole
What is the difference between encephalitis and encephalopathy?
• encephalitis is an inflammation of the brain parenchyma due to infectious causes

• encephalopathy is usually due to secondary causes (ex. toxins, metabolic causes)
- Wilson's disease, hepatic encephalopathy, Wernicke's
What is the most frequent and treatable cause of encephalitis?
herpes simplex virus
What are particularly omnious signs of meningitis?
• cranial nerve palsies (CN III, IV, VI, VII, VII)
• seizures
What is the most common space-occupying lesion in HIV-infected patients?
toxoplasmosis
What is the treatment of toxiplasmosis?
• pyrimethamine
• sulfadiazine
What are etiologies for a brain abscess?
• odontogenic
• otogenic
• sinusitis
What are signs and symptoms of a brain abscess?
• confusion
• drowsiness
• headache
• seizures
• signs of increased ICP
• focal neurologic deficit