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26 Cards in this Set

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Which infectious organisms are obligate intracellular parasites that are entirely dependent on host cells for protein synthesis and replication?
viruses
What are some ways that viruses evade host defense mechanisms?
• by multiplying within host cells
• gene rearrangements
• can carry antigens of host cell origin
• induce immune dysfunction
What are the chlamydial species known to cause disease in humans?
• Chlamydia trachomatis
• Chlamydia pneumoniae
• Chlamydia psittaci
Chlamydiae are susceptible to which antibiotics?
• tetracycline
• macrolides
Which bacteria are the smallest free-living organsisms that do not have cell walls?
Mycoplasma
How do you view spirochetes under a microscope?
• stain with silver
OR
• view under darkfield illumination
What are some clues that indicate the presence of an anaerobic infection?
• foul odor
• presence of gas (seen either radiographically or manifested by crepitus on examination)
• presence of mixed gram-positive and gram-negative flora on a Gram stain of purulent exudate
What are characteristics of the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria?
• appear pink on gram stain
• contain lipoplysaccharide (a potent inducer of cytokines like TNF)
• associated with fever and septic shock
List some examples of enterobacteria
• E. Coli
• Enterobacter
• Klebsiella
• Proteus
• Salmonella
• Serratia
• Shigella
Which enterobacteria is a common agent of bacterial dysentery?
Shigella
Which enterobacteria is associated with staghorn calculi of the urinary collecting system?
proteus
List 2 examples of gram-negative cocci
• Neisseria
• Moraxella
List examples of gram-positive rods
• Bacillus
• Clostridium
• Corynebacterium
• Diptheria
• Listeria
List some mycobacterium (other than M. tuberculosis)
• M. avium
• M. bovis
• M. leprae
• M. chelonae
• M. marinum
Give examples of weakly gram-positive filamentous bacteria
• Nocardia
• Actinomyces
What are characteristics of Nocardia?
• acid fast and aerobic
• most commonly produces pneumonia and brain abscess
• ~ 50% of patients with Nocardia infection have underlying impairments in cell-mediated immunity
What are characteristics of Actinomyces?
• anaerobic (not acid-fast)
• inhabits the mouth, gut, & vagina
• produces cervicofacial osteomyelitis, pneumonia w/ empyema, and intra-abdominal and pelvic abscesses
Describe the cell walls of fungi
rigid cell walls that contain chitin as well as polysaccharides
Name and describe the two forms of fungi
• Yeast: round to ovoid cells that may reproduce by budding
• Mold: complex tubular structures (hyphae) that grow by branching or extension
List examples of fungi
• Aspergillus
• Blastomycosis
• Candida
• Coccidiodes
• Cryptococcus
• Histoplasma
• Pneumocystis carinii
What are different parts of the body that Candida can colonize?
• mouth (Candida stomatitis or thrush)
• vagina (Vulvovaginitis)
• urinary tract
• blood stream (can produce sepsis)
Which fungus is endemic to the Ohio & Mississippi river valley and produces mild fever and pneumonia?
• Histoplasmosis (Histoplasma capsulatum)
• Blastomycosis (most commonly affects skin, bones, and genitourinary tract)
Which fungus is endemic to the southwestern US and produces a self-limited respiratory infection or pneumonia?
Coccidomycosis (Coccidioides immitis)
What are clinical manifestations of infection with Cryptococcus?
• most common clinical manifestation is a chronic meningitis
• can produce a self-limited or chronic pneumonia
Name and describe an illness produced by aspergillus
• acute bronchopulmonary aspergillosis
- an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to Aspergillus colonization of the respiratory tract
- produces wheezing and fleeting pulmonary infiltrates in patients with asthma
List examples of protozoal organisms that cause disease
• Babesia microti
• Cryptosporidium
• Entamoeba histolytica
• Giardia lamblia
• Isospora belli
• Microsporidium
• Plasmodium
• Toxoplasma gondii
• Tricomonas vaginalis