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35 Cards in this Set

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what are the 3 main mechanisms that have evolved to protect larger organisms from infection or parasitization by another?
anatomic
humoral
cellular
cough and gag reflex are examples of what type of host defense?
innate: adaptive (anatomic) defense
which defense system is complement a part of?
humoral defense
what activates the classic complement pathway?
antibody coated targets
or
antigen-antibody complexes
a patient with a complement deficiency in terminal components is at risk for?
repeated infections: of gram - encapsulated bacteria .
esp Neisseria
what is the OPV?
oral polio vax
MMR ?
measles
mumps
rheubella
TD?
tetanus/diptheria
tx for + PPD?
INH x 6-12 months
what does BCG stand for?
bacille
Calmette
Guerin
four criteria designed to establish a causal relationship between a causative microbe and a disease
Koch's postulates
large polypeptides produced by B lymphocytes and plasma cells that are key components in the adaptive immune response?
antibodies
what are the 3 possible functions of antibodies?
neutralization
opsonization
activate complement
the immunoglobulin that comprises the earliest immune response to antigenic challenge and often predominates in response to polysaccharides
IgM
the most prevalent immunoglobulin class in blood?
IgG
this immunoglobulin is present both in blood and at mucosal surfaces and is a key element in mucosal immune protection?
IgA
along with IgM this immunoglobulin may serve as B-lymphocyte antigen receptors?
IgD
this immunoglobulin plays an important role in allergy by triggering mast cells and mediates responses to parasitic infestation
IgE
what are the 2 phagocytic cells?
neutrophils and macrophages
large granular lymphocytes that have cytolytic function?
NK cells
cytokines that induce cellular movement and play important roles in trafficking cells to appropriate sites
chemokines
anti-viral cytokines that can be induced as a response to viral infection?
interferons
a group of proteins and peptides that are used in organisms as signaling compounds. These chemical signals are similar to hormones and neurotransmitters and are used to allow one cell to communicate with another
cytokines
what components of the innate immune system are activated initially until the more potent and specific adaptive immune response can be mobilized?
phagocytic cells
complement
NK cells
anti-viral interferons
what type of defense cell are skin and mucosal tissues largely made up of?
dendritic cells: langerhans
which microorganisms can the use of gram stain or AFB stains be useful in detecting?
bacteria
mycobacteria
candida
what organism can an india ink stain detect?
cryptococcus
what organism can a KOH prep identify?
fungal pathogens
elastin fibers seen on a KOH prep suggests what in a sputum culture?
a necrotizing pneumonia
what organism can a tzank smear identify?
herpes
what are giant cells diagnostic of?
herpesvirus
what organism can darkfield microscopy detect?
treponema pallidum
legionella pneumophila and
bordetella pertussis (in respiratory secretions) and influenza virus and adenovirus can be detected using what technique?
immunofluorescence
what does the presence of a polymorphonuclear leukocytic infiltrate suggest?
an acute bacterial process
what does a lymphocytic infiltrate suggest on slide?
a more chronic process and is seen in
viral
mycobacterial and
fungal infections