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17 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are diseases?
a condition of abnormal function involving any structure, part of a structure, or a system of the organism
Colonozation
The process by which strains of macroorganism may grow and multiply, but don not cause disease (resident flora)
Souce of transmission
comminicable - HAI or nosocomial (health care -associated infection)
Endogenous - get the infection from themselves
Exogenous- from outside source
contributing factors of HAI
#1 insufficient hadwashing
#2 iatrogenic - infection from some kind of procedure ex- if a peson gets an infection from proper procedure and get the infection from that
#3 compromised host defense -
#4 contaminated equiptment
types of infection
Local, systemic - systemic is throught body
acute- infection just happend and it doesnt last that long, chronic-nlast for six month
Baceremia-
Septicemia-
resistant-
what can be done by health care providers and the general public to preventthe development of resistant strains of bacteria?
cut down on antibioticat, do not use other people's antiiotic, take the entire course of the antibiotic
Resistant Microbes
MRSA (CAMRSA) - kills more than aids and affects more than 90000 people
VRE-
VRSA-
PRSP(MDRSP)
MDRTB
Suprainfections
secondary infections-
Usually caused by an opportunistic pathogen - like when a woman taking atibiotic and develoop yaest infection
risk for infections
Age-very old and very young
breastfeeding very good bc antibodies are passed down from mother.
elderly have a weakedn immune system. low counts of Tcell and they have other problem such as less saliva and decreased gum line allowing bacteria through, also skin is fragile, they do not drink enough water and get dehydrated and do not urinate as often therefore urine sits there and doesnt flush out organisms
Heredity-such as sickle cell, diabetes,
Stress-reduce resistance to infections, body should be able to mount the inflamatory response, your body produces cortisol and it is an anti inflamatory substance therefore if an organism eneters your body will not able to respond normally to fight of
Nutritional status - enough protein
Immunization status
Personal Habits-STDs or STI, sexual habits, smoking, alcohol
Medical treatments-steroids
Pre-existing diseases- diabetes bc blood sugar is not normal level so they can have infections, they also have a delay with healing time.
Recent illnesses or sugery- opening of body bc body is bodies first line of defense
Weakend defense systems-
Cultural practices-ex. religion
Enviromental factors-factories, where is the drinking water comming from
nonspecific host defenses
Skin
Protective mechanism
Inflammatory response
Fever-
(may appear diferently in the elderly)!!!-confussion, disorientation, agitation,alterred mental status or AMS,the eldery will not complain of an UTI, bc they sometimes do not have the same complaints as anyone else would
immune system
Antibody mediated
active-have natural exposure to antigen, like chiken pox a person then develops antibodies
Artificial antigens give - vacine given antibodies are developed, may need booster shots
Passive immunitty- given by someone else
Natural source-breastfeeding
Artificial source-given to me (antibodies are given to me)
Cell Mediated- T cell sytem, cant be given
Body'e response to infection
Localized Response
cardinal signs
1-hyperemia(redness)
2-edema(swelling)
3-heat
4-pain
5-
Body's response to infection
systemic response
1-fever
2-increased
Chain of Infection
Etilogic agent-depends on the number & virulance(the ability to produce disease)
organism that causes the problem to begin with, different organisms are more virulant than others
Chain of infection
Reservoir-where the organism is living
Chain Of infection
Portal of exit and Portal of Entry
systems of isolation precautions
1-wash hands before & after all client contact
2-Proper use of personal protective euiptment (PPE) such as gloves, mask, protective eyewear, gowns(fluid resistant)
3-proper removal of PPE
4-disposal of sharps in puncture resistant containers
5-do no recap, break, bend needles after use
6-dispose of infected waste as per agency policy