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159 Cards in this Set

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Itraconazole
Azole-Inhibit fungal CYP450-Antifungal - PO
Miconazole
Azole-Inhibit fungal CYP450-Antifungal - IV & topical
Cidofovir
Inh DNA polymerase (activated by HOST kinases to diphosphate form) - R CMV, Acyclo R HSV & VZV
Chloroquine
Inhib malarial heme polymerase - P. malaria & non-R P. falciparum - vivax & ovale will relapse (use primaquine)
Niclosamide
Activate ATPase or uncouple ox phos - Tapeworm (flatworm) - Flat like a nickle!
Acyclovir
Guanosine analog-activated by viral kinases (2nd & 3rd phosphorylation by host kinases) - *HSV1&2, severe VSV, EBV (oral hairy leukoplakia)
Terbinafine
Inh squalene epoxidase - ↑ squalene kills fungus - DOC Fungal nail INF PO - PO&top for tinea
Stavudine
NRTI - Nucleoside analog phosphorylated to ZTP that inhib viral RT
Rimantadine
Prevents viral uncoating @ flu A M2 proton channel - PRO Flu A (esp in elderly)- NOT flu B!!!!!
Vidarabine
Inh viral DNA polymerase - Herpes keratitis
Lopinavir
HIV PI - Prevents cleavage of the two polyprotein products of HIV mRNA (Virions cannot mature)
Voriconazole
Azole-Inhibit fungal CYP450-Antifungal - PO & IV
Montelukase
LTD4 receptor blocker - chronic maintenance therapy for Asthma
Pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine
DiHfolate reductase I - selective for malarial & toxoplasmodial DHFR - chloroquine R malaria
Praziquantel
↑ Ca perm=tetanic contractions/death - Flukes (fluke to have q&z in a word!)
Valacyclovir
Precursor to Acyclovir c ↑ Bioavail. - *HSV1&2, severe VSV, EBV (hairy leukoplakia)
Nystatin
↑ memb permiability (afinity for fungal ergosterol) - Antifungal - PO (but not absorbed for oral candidiasis) & topical
Permethrin
DOC lice!
Saquinavir
HIV PI - Prevents cleavage of the two polyprotein products of HIV mRNA (Virions cannot mature)
Mebendazole
Pinworm INF (Enterobius) - Inhibits microtubule synth
Revirapine
NNRTI - NOT a nucleoside! Binds directly to HIV RT
Alendazole
Well absorbed GI - Roundworm (Echinococcus) & neurocysticercosis - Inhibits microtubule synth
Cromolyn Sodium
Alters Cl channels to stabilize mast cell/eosinophil membrane & prevent egranulation - Bronchial Asthma PRO
Ivermectin
↑ GABA neuroxmission->death, threadworm & roundworm
Zileuton
5-lipoxygenase inhibitor to prevent LT formation - Asthma
Griseofulvin
Inhibit mitotic spindle formation - PO antifungal - DOC ringworm (tinea)
Lamivudine
NRTI - Nucleoside analog phosphorylated to ZTP that inhib viral RT
Ritonavir
HIV PI - Prevents cleavage of the two polyprotein products of HIV mRNA (Virions cannot mature)
Pyrantel Pamoate
ACh (neuromuscular) blockade - Pin (Enterobius) & roundworm (Echinococcus)
Zafirlukast
LTD4 receptor blocker - chronic maintenance therapy for Asthma
Mefloquine
Inhib malarial heme polymerase - *R P. falciparum - vivax & ovale will relapse (use primaquine)
Zidovudine
NRTI - Nucleoside analog phosphorylated to ZTP that inhib viral RT
Tenofovir
NRTI combination
Efavirenz
NNRTI - NOT a nucleoside! Binds directly to HIV RT
Primaquine
Liver stages P vivax & ovale (use c blood schizonticide like chloroquine)
Foscarnet
Directly inhibits viral DNA polymerase - R CMV & HSV - Dose related nephrotox!
Amphotericin B
↑ memb permiability (afinity for fungal ergosterol) - Antifungal - IV & topical
Clotrimazole
Azole-Inhibit fungal CYP450-Antifungal - Oral troche & topical
Metronidazole
cidal anaero (B. fragilis!) - DOC C. diff collitis - Giard, amebiasis, trich - No EtOH, monitor AST/ALT
Fomivirisen
antisense oligonuc binds to mRNA and blocks translation to protein - CMV retinitis
Fluconazole
Azole-Inhibit fungal CYP450-Antifungal - PRO vaginal candidiasis c Abx use
Abacavir
NRTI - Nucleoside analog phosphorylated to ZTP that inhib viral RT
Amikacin
Aminoglyco - cidal @ 30s - Serious G- INF, synergy c Vanc for G+, Ototox & Nephrotox!
Amoxacillin
Aminopenicillin PO - DOC Otitis Media
Ampicillin
Aminopenicillin IV - DOC Otitis Media
Azithromycin
Macrolide - 50s - DOC CAP (esp myco&legion) - Staph/Strep in Pt c PCN ALL
Aztreonam
ßL - Monobactam - cidal for G(-), NO G(+) - Rx for Pt c PCN allergy
Benzathine Penicillin G
Orig. IM PCN
Cefazolin
ßL -1st Gen Ceph - +++ G(+) (Staph/Strep) NOT Entero - Surg PRO
Cefepime
ßL -4th gen Ceph - xtra ßLase R - +++ G+/-
Cefotaxime
ßL -3rd gen Ceph - +++ G-, ++ G+, Good CSF penitration
Cefotetan
ßL -2nd gen Ceph - ++ G+/- & anaerobe - ABD Surg PRO
Cefoxitin
ßL -2nd gen Ceph - ++ G+/- & anaerobe - ABD Surg PRO
Ceftazidime
ßL -3rd gen Ceph - +++ G-, ++ G+, Good CSF - Only Ceph vs. Pseudo
Ceftriaxone
ßL -3rd gen Ceph - +++ G-, ++ G+, Good CSF penetration
Ciprofloxacin
Fluro - cidal (inhibits topoisomerase) - +++ G-, some G+, mycobac & atypicals, NOT c arrythmics!
Clarithromycin
Macrolide - 50s - DOC CAP (esp myco&legion) - Staph/Strep in Pt c PCN ALL
Clavulanate
Clavaulanic acid - BLase Inhibitor
Clindamycin
Bacteriostatic - Binds 50s - G+ and Anaerobe (not C. diff so collitis poss SE) good bone penetration - NO G-
Cloxacillin
Penicillinase resistant PCN
Dicloxacillin
Penicillinase resistant PCN
Doxycycline
static - Binds 30s - Rikettsia & chlamydia (+++intracellular) - cheap Rx atypical PN
Erythromycin
Macrolide - 50s - DOC CAP (esp myco&legion) - Staph/Strep in Pt c PCN ALL
Gatifloxacin
Fluro - cidal (inhibits topoisomerase) - +++ G-, better G+, mycobac & atypicals, NOT c arrythmics!
Gemifloxacin
Fluro - cidal (inhibits topoisomerase) - +++ G-, some G+, mycobac & atypicals, NOT c arrythmics!
Gentamycin
Aminoglyco - cidal @ 30s - Serious G- INF, synergy c Vanc for G+, Ototox & Nephrotox!
Imipenem
ßL (ßLase R)Carbapenem - BROAD spec S-MRSA & VRE (used c cilastatin aka seizurecillin) MDR pathogens & polymicrobial life threatening INF!
Levofloxacin
Fluro - cidal (inhibits topoisomerase) - +++ G-, some G+, mycobac & atypicals, NOT c arrythmics!
Linezolid
50s - high R G+ ie. MRSA & VRE
Meropenem
ßL (ßLase R) - Carbapenem - BROAD spec S-MRSA & VRE - MDR pathogens & polymicrobial life threatening INF!
Minocycline
static - Binds 30s - Rikettsia & chlamydia (+++intracellular) - cheap Rx atypical PN
Moxifloxacin
Fluro - cidal (inhibits topoisomerase) - +++ G-, better G+, mycobac & atypicals, NOT c arrythmics!
Nafcillin
Penicillinase resistant PCN
Nitrofurantoin
Urinary antiseptic - UTIs esp E. coli & entero - Brown urine!
Oxacillin
Penicillinase resistant PCN
Penicillin G
Orig. IV PCN
Penicillin VK
Orig. PO PCN
Piperacillin
IV PCN for Gram (-) esp. Pseudomonas (use c ßLase I)
Procaine Penicillin G
Orig. IM PCN
Quinupristin/Dalfopristin
50s - high R G+ ie. MRSA & VRE
Sulbactam
ßLase Inhibitor
Tazobactam
ßLase Inhibitor
Tetracycline
static - Binds 30s - Rikettsia & chlamydia (+++intracellular) - cheap Rx atypical PN
Ticarcillin
IV PCN for Gram (-) esp. Pseudomonas (use c ßLase I)
Tobramycin
Aminoglyco - cidal @ 30s - Serious G- INF, synergy c Vanc for G+, Ototox & Nephrotox!
Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole
inhibits dihydrofolate reductase - UTIs, PCP
Tx of TB c +PPD & neg CXR
6-9 months daily isoniazid (INH)
Tx of TB c +PPD & TB in sputum
9 mo Isoniazid, Rifampin, Ethambutol, Pyrazinamide (INH, RIF, PZA, EMB)
Tx of TB in Pt c HIV taking PI and NNRTI
9 mo Isoniazid, RIFABUTIN (NOT Rifampin), Ethambutol, Pyrazinamide
Vancomycin
G+ ONLY - MRSA - Serious INF in Pt c PCN ALL - 2nd line for C. diff collitis
cefazolin (1)
surgical prophylaxis (DOC), skin & soft tissue infections (staph. Aureus & Strep)
cefoxitin (2)
intra-abdominal surgery prophylaxis (anaerobes)
cefotetan (2)
intra-abdominal surgery prophylaxis (anaerobes)
cefotaxime (3)
strep pneumoniae infxns (or B-Hemolytic Strep)
ceftriaxone (3)
strep pneumoniae infxns (or B-Hemolytic Strep)
ceftazidime (3)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
cefepime (4)
critically ill pt's, pseudomonas, gram negative meningitis
penicilin G (i.v.)
B-hemolytic strep (includes Grp A Strep), susceptible S. pneumoniae infxns, meningococcal meningitis (pcn G is DOC for all) ***(most S. aureus is resistant)
penicillin VK (p.o)
B-hemolytic strep (includes Grp A Strep), susceptible S. pneumoniae infxns, meningococcal meningitis (pcn G is DOC for all) ***(most S. aureus is resistant)
procaine pcn G
B-hemolytic strep (includes Grp A Strep), susceptible S. pneumoniae infxns, meningococcal meningitis (pcn G is DOC for all) ***(most S. aureus is resistant)
benzathine pcn G
B-hemolytic strep (includes Grp A Strep), susceptible S. pneumoniae infxns, meningococcal meningitis (pcn G is DOC for all) ***(most S. aureus is resistant)
oxacillin (i.v.)
soft tissue cellulitis (non-MRSA) (DOC), always better than vanc
nafcillin (i.v.)
soft tissue cellulitis (non-MRSA) (DOC), always better than vanc
dicloxacillin (p.o.)
soft tissue cellulitis (non-MRSA)
cloxacillin (p.o.)
soft tissue cellulitis (non-MRSA)
ampicillin (i.v.)
1st line for otitis media (DOC), some gram negs too (add clav for 3rd AOM)
amoxacillin (p.o)
1st line for otitis media (DOC), some gram negs too (add clav for 3rd AOM)
piperacillin
pseudomonas, systemic gram negatives (kleb., proteus, serratia)
ticarcillin
pseudomonas, systemic gram negatives (kleb., proteus, serratia)
clavulanate
give w/ piperacillin (ICU), ticarcillin (ICU), amoxicillin & ampicillin
sulbactam
give w/ piperacillin (ICU), ticarcillin (ICU), amoxicillin & ampicillin
tazobactam
give w/ piperacillin (ICU), ticarcillin (ICU), amoxicillin & ampicillin
imipenem/cilastatin
very broad spectrum: MultiDrug Resistant (MDR) pathogens, polymicrobial life-threatening infxn. (i.e. massive contamxns - GI explosion); Febrile neutropenics (for cancer & immunocompromised Pt's)
meropenem
very broad spectrum: MultiDrug Resistant (MDR) pathogens, polymicrobial life-threatening infxn. (i.e. massive contamxns - GI explosion); Febrile neutropenics (for cancer & immunocompromised Pt's)
ertapenem
very broad spectrum: MultiDrug Resistant (MDR) pathogens, polymicrobial life-threatening infxn. (i.e. massive contamxns - GI explosion); Febrile neutropenics (for cancer & immunocompromised Pt's)
aztreonam (i.v.)
aerobic gram -'s (pseudomonas)
amikacin
aerobic G - bacilli (GIVE HIGH DOSES) (but resistance readily develops b/c of bact. enz. activation- less w/ amik); G + : give w/ β-lactam, ceph or vanc for synergistic killing (GIVE LOW DOSES)
gentamicin
aerobic G - bacilli (GIVE HIGH DOSES) (but resistance readily develops b/c of bact. enz. activation- less w/ amik); G + : give w/ β-lactam, ceph or vanc for synergistic killing (GIVE LOW DOSES)
tobramycin
aerobic G - bacilli (GIVE HIGH DOSES) (but resistance readily develops b/c of bact. enz. activation- less w/ amik); G + : give w/ β-lactam, ceph or vanc for synergistic killing (GIVE LOW DOSES)
ciprofloxacin
gram + activity (not MRSA or VRE) (M>G>L>C), ~ 40% of pseudomonas (C=L>G>M), anaerobics (M=G>L=C), intracellular pathogens & other gram - (except pseudomonas), DOC for inpatient CAP & complicated UTI's (only for susceptible E. coli; ® increasing);
levofloxacin
gram + activity (not MRSA or VRE) (M>G>L>C), ~ 40% of pseudomonas (C=L>G>M), anaerobics (M=G>L=C), intracellular pathogens & other gram - (except pseudomonas), DOC for inpatient CAP & complicated UTI's (only for susceptible E. coli; ® increasing);
gatifloxacin
gram + activity (not MRSA or VRE) (M>G>L>C), ~ 40% of pseudomonas (C=L>G>M), anaerobics (M=G>L=C), intracellular pathogens & other gram - (except pseudomonas), DOC for inpatient CAP & complicated UTI's (only for susceptible E. coli; ® increasing);
gemiflozacin
gram + activity (not MRSA or VRE) (M>G>L>C), ~ 40% of pseudomonas (C=L>G>M), anaerobics (M=G>L=C), intracellular pathogens & other gram - (except pseudomonas), DOC for inpatient CAP & complicated UTI's (only for susceptible E. coli; ® increasing);
moxifloxacin
gram + activity (not MRSA or VRE) (M>G>L>C), ~ 40% of pseudomonas (C=L>G>M), anaerobics (M=G>L=C), intracellular pathogens & other gram - (except pseudomonas), DOC for inpatient CAP & complicated UTI's (only for susceptible E. coli; ® increasing);
azithromycin
good gram + (NO MRSA or VRE or enterococcus), out-Pt. mgmt of CAP (DOC), Legionella, M. avium, Chlamydia, Mycoplasma pneumoniae (CAP: Community Acquired Pneumonia - Typical & Atypicals)
erythromycin
good gram + (NO MRSA or VRE or enterococcus), out-Pt. mgmt of CAP (DOC), Legionella, M. avium, Chlamydia, Mycoplasma pneumoniae (CAP: Community Acquired Pneumonia - Typical & Atypicals)
clarithromycin (p.o)
good gram + (NO MRSA or VRE or enterococcus), out-Pt. mgmt of CAP (DOC), Legionella, M. avium, Chlamydia, Mycoplasma pneumoniae (CAP: Community Acquired Pneumonia - Typical & Atypicals)
clindamycin
excellent gram + coverage (staph & strep), soft tissue infxn's, no gram - & little MSRA activity, good for pulm. anaerobes, Decrease B. fragilis suscept. (NO VRE); Plasmodium
vancomycin (i.v.)
MRSA (DOC), gram + organisms only, amp-resistant enterococcus, meningitis, MDR S. pneumonia infxn, 2nd line tx of pseudomemb. Colitis (C. deficile); Febrile neutropenics
quinupristin/dalfopristin
( - cidal: strep, most staph), (** MRSA), ( - static: Enterococcus faecium (*** VRE)), MDR gram + (great G+ coverage!)
linezolid
Enterococcus faceium AND faecalis, ( -static: VRE infections (DOC) & select MRSA); MDR G+ (min. G - activity)
trim-sulfa
Broad spectrum: S. aureus, Enterobacter, E. coli, Klebsiella; UTI's; pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in AIDS patients (DOC), toxoplasmosis (may help w/ MRSA in future)
nitrofurantoin
UTI's (not pseudomonas)
Tetracycline HCl
rickettsial infxns (RMSF - DOC), Lyme Disease (B. burgdorferi) DOC; **mycoplasma pneumoniae (CAP), chlamydia, acne, moderate gram + and gram - activity; Plasmodium
doxycycline
rickettsial infxns (RMSF - DOC), Lyme Disease (B. burgdorferi) DOC; **mycoplasma pneumoniae (CAP), chlamydia, acne, moderate gram + and gram - activity; Plasmodium
minocycline
used esp. for **acne
niclosamide
tapeworm/Cestodes (DOC) (can't get in USA)
praziquantel
schistosomiasis (DOC) (Flukes/Tremetodes)
mebendazole
Broad Coverage: roundworms tapeworms, pinworms, whipworms, hookworms
albendazole
mixed infections; roundworms, pinworms, whipworms, hookworms, ***cysticercosis (DOC for all these)
pyrantel pamoate
pinworms
ivermectin
threadworm
chloroquine
use together for malaria treatment (need both for total cure), but chloroquine is DOC
primaquine
use together for malaria treatment (need both for total cure), but chloroquine is DOC
Toxoplasma (DOC)
mefloquine
MDR P. falicparum; DOC in Africa (lots of CQ resist.)
PERMETRIN
Pediculosis/Lice (see severe itch, Vagabond's disease; use 1% (wait 10 min, wash); Scabies (mites lay eggs in Epidermis; use 5% (wait 8-14 hrs b/4 wash)
metronidazole
amebiasis, trichomoniasis; some anaerobic coverage (bacteriocidal); pseudomembranous colitis (DOC); B. fragilis (abd. Cavity probs); C. difficile; giardiasis (from contam. H2O, daycare)
Griseofulvin
dermatophytes: tinea corporis (ringworm), tineal capitas (scalp ringworm); tinea cruris (jock itch), tenia pedis (athlete's foot)
Miconazole
candida vulvovaginitis
Clotrimazole
candida vulvovaginitis
Itraconazole
Aspergillus infxns
Fluconazole (p.o.)
systemic Candidia albicans infxns (but takes 48 hrs b/4 effects take place - so, not really recommened)
terbinafine (p.o.)
fungal nail infections - Onychomycosis (DOC); athletes foot & jock itch
nystatin
susceptible cutaneous, mucocutaneous & oral fungal infectxns (candidia -- i.e. thrush) (w/ swish & swallow)
amphotericin B
i.v. for resistant oral candidiasis or severe systemic infections (cryptococcus, aspergillus, neisseria)
Rimantadine
for Influenza
Vidarabine
herpes simplex keratitis
acyclovir
herpesviruses (not effective against latency - can't eradicate infxn; only infected cells affected) (Bell's Palsy); prophylaxis for CMV retinitis for Pt's w/ transplanted organs