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30 Cards in this Set

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John Rockefeller
Leader in Oil Refining
Created monopoly in oil refining (vert. & horizontal)
Standard Oil companies
trust w/ other companies 1880s
1899 had 90% of companies
Made people aware of monopolies
Andrew Carnegie
Leader in steel business
Created monopoly in steel(vert.)
Carnegie Steel Company
began in 1870s-1901 (he sold it)
showed how you could reduce production costs to make $
Henry Clay Frick
Carnegie's man at homestead
in charge of busting up Amalgamated Assoc. @ Homestead
Homestead
June 1892 (1890s)
Showed how management can win
Uriah Stephans
Leader of Knights of Labor
founded Knights of Labor
Philadelphia (founded)
1869 Knights founded
Gave many people union to belong to
Walter Reuther
President of UAW
organized auto worker strikes
Detriot strikes
1937 fought with Ford "Battle of the Overpass"
helped UAW
Samuel Gompers
1st pres. of AFofL
more sucessful union
New York pres. office
1886 founded
peaceful, long lasting union
John L. Lewis
pres. of CIO
allowed broader range from AFofL

1930s
helped many poor people
George Pullman
controlled Pullman Company
made railroad cars
Chicago, town of Pullman
1894, town
things can not work out for either party
Eugene Debs
1st pres. of ARU
controlled all railway workers, not one job
Chicago, pullman town
1893 founded
wanted peace but fought law
August Spies
anarchist at haymarket riot
fought for rights
haymarket, chicago
1886
tested freedom of speech
Knights of Labor
pres. uriah stephans
open to anyone
700,000 in 1885
FAILED-wanted to change and help to much
AFL
American Federation of Labor
1886, pres. gompers
EXCLUSIVE-skilled workers
peaceful, no big changes
CIO
Congress of Industrial Organizations-1930s
John L. Lewis
OPEN 6 million people-1955
merges w/ AFofL (AFL-CIO)-1955
UAW
United Automobile, Aerospace and Agricultural Implement Workers of America- reuther
ARU
American Railway Union-1893,Debs
Included all railway jobs(not a brotherhood)
Amalgamated Steel
homestead-last union dealing w/ carnegie
steel workers
haymarket riot
people were speaking about doing violent things to those who had hurt their fellow workers. Police came, a bomb was thrown and fighting broke out. 8 men were taken to trial ,1 killed themself, 3 got jail sentences, and 4 were hung (Spies).Brought up freedom of expression and speech issues
Pullman Strike
People were upset with some of the conditions in the Pullman town and the ARU started a boycott. Pullman cars wouldn't be connected to trains. Trains were stopped and mail couldn't travel. The National Gaurd was sent in and fighting occured. Injunction ordered but disobeyed. Debs goes to jail, only some workers get jobs back and must sign yellow-dog contract.
Homestead lockout
Frick wouldn't deal with Homestead Union and workers were locked out. Workers replaced w/ scabs. Lots of fighting, workers lost
sitdown strikes
AUW uses to fight Ford. Workers won't leave building. very powerful. employer can stop food ,gas building,stop heat, must no fighting for fear of damaging machines
Proprietorsips/Partnerships
Individuals or families/ 2 or more people
+source of income,more freedom
-can't manage large industries couldn't raise enough capital, & responsible for debt
Corporation
organizers raise capital by selling shares
+raise big $,stockholders not responsible for debt,stable because distinct from owners(limited liability)
Trust
group of companies as single enterprise
+/-could get monopoly
Monopoly
exclusive control of an industry
+make lots of $
-hurt businesses not involved
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
Said all monopolies and trusts in restraint of trade illegal
Social Darwinism
natural selection
survival of the fittest
greed needs competion to balance things
Vetical Integration
to control costs-acquire companies that provide materials & services upon which your enterprise depends
Horizontal Integration
One company owns all other companies involved in same business

buy out competition
Conditions necessary for an industrial revolution
1)Good Natural Resources,Swift Flowing Rivers,Natural Harbors
2)Good Crops=More People LARGE LABOR FORCE
3)$ Avalible (trade,capital)
4)Avalibility of Markets (places to sell things)
5)Favorable Gov,Common Welfare,Stable Gov,Good Economic Policies
Inventions of 2nd Industrial Revolution
Steam engine