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40 Cards in this Set

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industrial revoltion
term usually applied to the social and economic changes that mark the transition from a stable agricultural and commercial society to a modern industrial society relying on complex machinery rather than tools. It is used historically to refer primarily to the period in British history from the middle of the 18th cent. to the middle of the 19th cent.
change from agricultural society to modern industrial society
factory
building were machines were kept and workers worked
urban
city - type of land very crowded
rural
farming - type of land not crowded
reasons for growth of industry
lots of natural resources
imporved transportation
growing population
high imigration
new inventions
patent
a gov document giving an inventor the right to sell his invention
business cycle
the pattern of good and bad times in business
booms
the good times in business
busts
the bad times in business (not girls breats)
bessemer steel process
[for Sir Henry Bessemer], industrial process for the manufacture of steel from molten pig iron
generator
in electricity, machine used to change mechanical energy into electrical energy. It operates on the principle of electromagnetic induction, discovered (1831) by Michael Faraday
thomas edison
American inventor who patented more than a thousand inventions, among them the microphone (1877), the phonograph (1878), and an incandescent lamp (1879). In New York City he installed the world's first central electric power plant (1881-1882)
samuel morse
American painter and inventor. A portraitist whose subjects included Lafayette, he refined (1838) and patented (1854) the telegraph and developed the telegraphic code that bears his name
alexander g bell
1847—1922, American scientist, inventor of the telephone
centennial (100 years) exhibition
held in Philadelphia from May to Nov., 1876, to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the Declaration of Independence and where Bell first revealed the telephone
christohper l sholes
Christopher Latham Sholes (February 14, 1819 - February 17, 1890) is an American who contributed to the development of the typewriter
isaac singer
1811—75, American inventor, b. Rensselaer co., N.Y. As a child he lived in Oswego, N.Y. He patented in 1851 a practical sewing machine that could do continuous stitching
transcontinental railroad
rail connection with the Pacific coast. In 1845, Asa Whitney presented to Congress a plan for the federal government to subsidize the building of a railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific. The settlement of the Oregon boundary in 1846, the acquisition of western territories from Mexico in 1848, and the discovery of gold in California (1849) increased support for the project; in 1853, Congress appropriated funds to survey various proposed routes. Rivalry over the route was intense, however, and when Senator Stephen Douglas introduced (1854) his Kansas-Nebraska Act, intended to win approval for a line from Chicago, the ensuing sectional controversy between North and South forced a delay in the plans. During the Civil War, a Republican-controlled Congress enacted legislation (July 1, 1862) providing for construction of a transcontinental line. The law provided that the railroad be built by two companies; each received federal land grants of 10 alternate sections per mile on both sides of the line (the amount was doubled in 1864) and a 30-year government loan for each mile of track constructed. In 1863 the Union Pacific RR began construction from Omaha, Nebr., while the Central Pacific broke ground at Sacramento, Calif. The two lines met at Promontory Point, Utah, and on May 10, 1869, a golden spike joined the two railways, thus completing the first transcontinental railroad. Others followed. Three additional lines were finished in 1883: the Northern Pacific RR stretched from Lake Superior to Portland, Oreg.; the Santa Fe extended from Atchison, Kans., to Los Angeles; and the Southern Pacific connected Los Angeles with New Orleans. A fifth line, the Great Northern, was completed in 1893. Each of those companies received extensive grants of land, although none obtained government loans. The promise of land often resulted in shoddy construction that only later was repaired, and scandals, such as Crédit Mobilier (see Crédit Mobilier of America), were not infrequent. The transcontinental railroads immeasurably aided the settling of the west and hastened the closing of the frontier. They also brought rapid economic growth as mining, farming, and cattle-raising developed along the main lines and their branches
central pacific railroad
two acts of Congress (1862 and 1864) initiated the building of the first transcontinental railroad: the Union Pacific Railroad built westward from Nebraska and the Central Pacific Railroad built eastward from California; the two met at Promontory Summit, Utah, and were joined with a golden spike on May 10, 1869. For many years railroad tracks had varied in width, so that cars could not pass from one line to another. However, in the mid-1880s a standard gauge of 4 ft 8 1/2 in. (1.44 m) was adopted, mainly because the transcontinental railroad had, on federal orders, used such a width for its tracks
union pacific railroad
two acts of Congress (1862 and 1864) initiated the building of the first transcontinental railroad: the Union Pacific Railroad built westward from Nebraska and the Central Pacific Railroad built eastward from California; the two met at Promontory Summit, Utah, and were joined with a golden spike on May 10, 1869. For many years railroad tracks had varied in width, so that cars could not pass from one line to another. However, in the mid-1880s a standard gauge of 4 ft 8 1/2 in. (1.44 m) was adopted, mainly because the transcontinental railroad had, on federal orders, used such a width for its tracks
irish immigrants
immigrants who worked for the union pacific rr
knights of labor
American labor organization, started by Philadelphia tailors in 1869, led by Uriah S. Stephens. It became a body of national scope and importance in 1878 and grew more rapidly after 1881, when its earlier secrecy was abandoned. Organized on an industrial basis, with women, black workers (after 1883), and employers welcomed, excluding only bankers, lawyers, gamblers, and stockholders, the Knights of Labor aided various groups in strikes and boycotts, winning important strikes on the Union Pacific in 1884 and on the Wabash RR in 1885. But failure in the Missouri Pacific strike in 1886 and the Haymarket Square riot (for which it was, although not responsible, condemned by the press) caused a loss of prestige and strengthened factional disputes between the craft unionists and the advocates of all-inclusive unionism. With the motto "an injury to one is the concern of all," the Knights of Labor attempted through educational means to further its aims–an 8-hour day, abolition of child and convict labor, equal pay for equal work, elimination of private banks, cooperation–which, like its methods, were highly idealistic. The organization reached its apex in 1886, when under Terence V. Powderly its membership reached a total of 702,000. Among the causes of its downfall were factional disputes, too much centralization with a resulting autocracy from top to bottom, mismanagement, drainage of financial resources through unsuccessful strikes, and the emergence of the American Federation of Labor. By 1890 its membership had dropped to 100,000, and in 1900 it was practically extinct
Chinese immigrants
immigrants who worked for the central paicif rr
promontory pt, utah
place wher two rr's met to join together
corporation
Most corporations are businesses for profit; they are usually organized by three or more subscribers who raise capital for the corporate activities by selling shares of stock, which represent ownership and are transferable
john d rockefeller
1839—1937, American industrialist and philanthropist, b. Richford, N.Y. He moved (1853) with his family to a farm near Cleveland and at age 16 went to work as a bookkeeper. Frugal and industrious, Rockefeller became (1859) a partner in a produce business, and four years later, with his partners, he established an oil refinery, entering into an industry already thriving in Cleveland
andrew carneigie
By 1873, Carnegie had recognized America's need for steel and, concentrating on steel production, he began his acquisition of firms, which were later consolidated into the Carnegie Steel Company
monopoly
A company or group having exclusive control over a commercial activity
trust
A horizontal trust is a combination of corporations engaged in the same line of business. A vertical trust is an organization that controls all or part of a series of operations extending from the procuring of the raw materials to the retailing of the finished products
philanthropists
people who give large sums of mondy to charities
gilded age
The term "Gilded Age" was coined by Mark Twain and Charles Dudley Warner in their book, The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today (1873), employing the ironic difference between a "gilded" and a Golden Age. The wealth of the period is highlighted by the American upper class's opulent self-indulgence, but also the rise of the American philanthropy (Andrew Carnegie called it the "Gospel of Wealth") that endowed thousands of colleges, hospitals, museums, academies, schools, opera houses, public libraries, symphony orchestras, and so on. The Beaux-Arts architectural idiom of the era clothed public buildings in Neo-Renaissance architecture. The age of prosperity came after the pains of Reconstruction and the Panic of 1873. The era was characterized by an unusually rapid growth of railroads, small factories, banks, stores, mines and other enterprises, together with dramatic expansion into highly fertile western farmlands.

The end of the Gilded Age coincided with the deep depression termed the "Panic of 1893." The depression lasted until 1897 and marked a major political realignment in the election of 1896. After that historians see the new Progressive Era
area with most industry
north eastern part of us
labor
It is generally used to describe those working for a single company or industry. The term generally excludes the employers or management, and implies those involved in manual labour. It may also mean all those that are available for work.

Workers may be unionised, whereby the union conducts negotiations regarding pay and conditions of employment. In the event of industrial unrest, unions provide a co-ordinating role in organising ballots of the workforce, and strike action
management
The term "management" characterizes the process of and/or the personnel leading and directing all or part of an organization
areas of conflict (labor management)
low wages, long work hours, employment of women and children, monotonous work
sweatshop
a workplace that is physically or mentally abusive, or that crowds, confines, or compels workers, or forces them to work long and unreasonable hours, as would be the case with penal labor or slave labor
weapons of labor - strike
a strike, is a work stoppage caused by the mass refusal by employees to perform work. A strike usually takes place in response to grievances that employees feel management are ignoring
weapons of labor - picketting
Picketing is a form of resistance in which people congregate outside a place of work or location where an event is taking place and attempt to dissuade others from going in ("crossing the picket line")
weapons of labor - boycott
an attempt by labor to convince others to stop doing business with a particular firm because that firm does business with another firm that is the subject of a strike and/or a primary boycott
weapons of labor - publicity
ask for public support through mass demonstration, newspapers, radio and tv