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82 Cards in this Set

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3-1
What was life like on the farms?
-Villages fed themselves (substinance) for farming
-People married within the villages
Farming in the middle ages
3-1
1 of 3 villages left FALLOW. What is FALLOW?
Empty to regain fertility
3-1
Substinance Crops
Wheat
Oats
Beans
Corn
3-1
Cash Crops
Cotton
Coffee
Tabaco
Marajuana
3-1
Livestock
Pig
Sheep
Horse
Cow
3-1
What were the disadvantages to this way of farming?
-Land use was inefficient
-Animals grazed in common pastures
-Farmers didn't experiment w/ new farming methods
3-1
Forces for change of the farming lifestyle
-Population in UK was graowing= MORE FOOD NEEDED
-1700=5MILLON PEOPLE
-French blockade= NO CORN MORE FOOD NEEDED
3-2
What did wealthy land lords do with farming technology?
They fenced in common pastures
3-2
What did this do to the common people?
The peasants became poorer because villages lost common lands
3-2
Crop Rotation
When one crop was done, it would leave niutrients in the soil so they put another crop in and the niutrients replenished the plants.
FIELDS WERE NOT INEFFICIENTLY RUN!
3-2
When was seed drilling invented and by whom?
-1701
-Jethro Tull
*Saved 80% of seeds
3-2
Corn
Provides 20x more seed then the average.
3-2
Potatoes
-High in calories
-Can be grown almost anywhere
3-2
What were the end results to the agricultural revolution?
-More food available
-Population increased
3-3
Explain the 3 aspects of Mercantilism
-Export more than you import
-Import raw materials export finished good
-REGULATE TRADE AND COMMERCE
3-3
What were the merchant's role in the Cottage Industry?
-They supplied materials= woolw and cotton
-Took supplies from the spinning cottage to dying cottage to seel finished cloth.
-*** Sell products for more than material and labor cost= MORE MONEY FOR THEM
3-3
What is capitalism
An economis system based on private ownership, free competition, and open markets (laissez-faire=HANDS OFF)
3-3
How did Adam Smith define capitalism?
It is motivated by personal gain
3-3
What were 2 effects of the cottage inductry?
1-Big profits for new class of merchants
2-Alternative source of income for peasants.
3-4
Why was the textilve industry invented?
The cotton industry couldnt keep up with the demand for textile.
Because of what downfall?
SUPPLY AND DEMAND
3-4
Who invented the spinning jenny?
-James Hargreaves
-A water frame that improved spinning
3-4
Who invented the cotton gin?
Eli Whitney
3-4
What inconvienience caused the rise of factories?
The size of the newly invented machines.
3-4
Factories isolated what to make them more power efficient?
Their power source,coal,iron, and water
3-4
Name 3 effects the textile industry had on Britain
1-Prices of textiles were lower
2-The industry increased enormously
3- Majority of villages had to leave and get jobs in urban factories
3-5
Why was there such a need for economy?
Early factories relied on horses for transporting goods and steam engines were more efficient.
3-5
How does the steam engine work?
Steam forced from high to low pressure produces power
3-5
What were the effects brought on by the invention of the steam engine?
(1)It increased textile industry, (2)imporved mining by pumping alot of water out, and (3)increased metals which turned to feul other industries
3-6
What were 3 of the needs for iron?
1-farming tools
2-new machinery
3-railways
3-6
What is smelting?
The chemical process that removes impurities from iron ore
3-6
What were 2 needs for coal?
1-Carbon necessary for smelting
2-Steam engines powered by coal
3-6
What did Besseber do to smelting iron?
It reduced the time from 7 days to 30 minutes and Britain produced more iron then all other countries
3-6
What else did coal power in Britain?
It's navy
3-7
What was the cause of the need for transportation?
Increased population
3-7
What were 2 majior inventions made resulting from the need for transportaion?
1-Asphalt roads
2-Railroads
3-7
When was the railroad built and how fast did it go?
-1829
-29miles per hour
3-7
What was the effect on imports/exports due to the railroads invention?
Incresed them dramatically
3-7
What other industries did railways feul?
Coal, steam engines, iron steal and many manufactured products
3-8
What kind of geography helped Britain's lead in the Industrial Rev.?
Damp climate= good for textile production

Natural resources=iron and coal

Location=OUT OF WAR
3-8
What 3 things did the government encourage?
1-Internal trade
2-Population relocation
3-Allowed to help build cannals and roads
3-8
What was the main social factor?
British society was less rigid then other Europeans
3-8
What di dthe colonial empire do to the manufacturing of goods?
It supplied raw materials
3-8
What did the colonial empire do to the market?
Provided it with selling finished goods
3-8
What were the 2 advantages to industrializing first?
1-No competeing for manufactured goods
2-Monopoly on technology
3-9
What diseases spread in the Industrial Revolution?
Cholera Epidemic
3-9
What did the Health Aid do to cure the Cholera?
In 1879, they paved streets because it would clean up the air, purified the water, set up bath houses, and Quakers set up kitchens to feed starving people.
3-9
Samueal Morse
Invented the telegraph, which put the pony oexpress out of business
MORSE CODE!!!
S.O.S!!!
3-9
Alexandar Grahm Bell
Invented the phone
3-9
Marconi
Invented the radio
3-10
t/f: Before 1832, only British landowners could vote for representives to Parliament
TRUE
3-10
t/f: The Reform Act of 1832 discouraged industrial centers to elect their own members of Parliament
FALSE... they encouraged it
3-10
t/f: In 1833, The Reform Act banned children under the age of 9 from working
FALSE... The ALTHROPS ACT
3-10
t/f:Kids between 9-13 could only work 9 hour days
TRUE
3-10
t/f: Between the age of 13-18, children could work 15 hour days
FALSE...12HOUR DAYS
3-10
t/f: In 1842, Parliament prohibited mine owners from employing females and boys under then age of 10 from underground mine work
TRUE
3-10
What imigrants were crucial to the completion of the transcontinental railroad?
The Irish and Chinese Imigrants
3-10
Who invented the assembly line?
Henry Ford
3-10
Elias Howe
Invented the sewing machine
3-10
Eli Whitney
Invented the cotton gin which revolutionized the textile industry
3-11
What were trade clubs and when did they originate?
Formed by skilled workers in the 1700's to bargain with employers
3-11
What is a strike?
Refusing to continue working until workers demands are met without being helf legally liable for financial damage inflicted on employers
3-11
When did strikes start happeneing?
In 1870
3-11
Who was hired to work while employees went on strikes?
Scabs- people willing to cross the picket line
3-11
What were 4 things the union provided/faught for?
1-Stregnth through unity
2-Faught for higher pay
3-Faught for shorter working hours
4-Safer working conditions
3-11
What are the results of the past strikes?
-Workman's comp.
-Minimum wage**
-Safe workplace laws (*Sick days)
3-11
What is Hold the Fort?
A folk song of the British Transport Worker's Union
3-12
Who were Karl Marxx and Friedrich Engles?
Germans born to middle class families
3-12
What did Marxx believe?
Didn't like the unequal distibution of wealth; felt that management exploits workers
3-12
What form of government did Marxx believe to be the only form?
Communism
3-12
What group did he and Engles form?
The Communist League
3-12
What was the Communist Manifesto?
A critque, that Marxx and Engles wrote, of Capitalism
3-12
What does the Communist Manifesto state?
It suggest that wealth and power would naturally concentrate in the hands of the Bouregoise (thouse who controlled the means of production)
3-12
What were his views on the Proletariet?
Predicted that they would become angry at being exploited, the Workers of the World would unite and overthrow those who controlled the means of production, and
3-12
What was the result, in Marxx opnion?
Would be a dictatorship of the proletariet
3-12
And the END result?
A class society where wealth would be distributed evenly
3-13
Who is Robert Owen?
A successful businessman who made his money in the textile industry
3-13
Robert Owen was very wealthy but gave his money away generously. What would people call him?
A philanthropist
3-13
What did he believe people were?
Shaped by their surroundings
3-13
How did he feel changing poor working conditions would effect people?
It would make them happier and healthier, enabling them to work harder
3-13
The Wright Bros.
Credited with the first mechanically sustained flight in Kitty Hawk, North Carolina
3-13
4 principles of flight
1-thrust
2-lift
3-gravity
4-drag
3-13
Bernoulli's principle
-High pressure=slower under wing
-Low pressure=faster over wing