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30 Cards in this Set

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Enclosure Movement
common land given to rich --> small farmers move to the city
Adam Smith
author of wealth of nations in which capitalism was first described
Laissez Faire Principles
1) Entrepreneurs should be free to run their businesses in way that will bring most profit
2)whats good for entrepreneur = good for all
3)Free competition gives people chance to do jobs they do best
4)govts shouldnt meddle in business
Industrial Revolution
a period of change in the methods of producing goods and organizing labor which began in Britain in the 1700s, resulted from the invention of new machines and discovery of new forms of power
keys to IR
labor supply, natural resources, investment capital, entrepreneurs, transportation, markets, gvt support
Entrepreneurs
People who organized and managed buisinesses, opportunity to make great profits spurred them to build factories, work out efficient ways to produce goods, search for new markets
Domestic System
production in which raw materials are distributed to workers who work in their homes to make the goods

existed before factories, feared losing jobs so rioted and destroyed machines
Communism
An economic and social system created by Karl Marx and Frederick Engels in the Communist manifesto, in which people own all property and means of production and all goods and services are shared
Meiji Era
45-year reign of the Meiji Emperor. During this time, Japan started its modernization and rose to world power status.
Centralized Power in Emperor, Absolute Monarchy, no parliament
Charter Oath
given by emperor to Japanese people, established assembly, ended feudalism, freedoms of job, speech, religion, make empire strong enough to maintain independence
Light industry
glass, paper, silk, cloth, etc

raised money to build up heavy industry, get gold and silver
gunboat diplomacy
using the threat of force to pressure another country to do what u want to do with them...US did to Japan
Congress of Vienna
meeting of European leaders that returned conservatives to power after fall of Napoleon,
Britain, Austria, Prussia, Russia, France
led by metternich of austria
restore balance of power with redrawn borders
peace and stability
Metternich System
metternich encouraged leaders of Europe to resist any threats to the established order, censored press, arrested liberals and democrats, set up secret police
July Revolution
led by students and middle class liberals in revolt to Charles X who fled to Britain
Conservatism
a political philosophy that emphasizes preserving of traditions and established institutions, reaction vs enlightenment and french rev.
upper class, monarchy needed for stability
Liberalism
political philosophy that emphasizs progress and reform and stresses the importance of individual freedom
rising middle class
republic/ those educated or had property
Revolutions of 1848
mostly unsuccessful revolutions caused by economic troubles, political corruptioon, liberalism, democracy, nationalism

spain, italy, russia, poland defeated
greece and belgium got independeence
Risorgimiento
means resurgence, name given to secret societies who dreamed of 1st independence, later unification,
Young italy
Camillo de Cavour
Prime minister of kingdom of sardinia who brought the unification of italy

1. strenghten economy
2. Build alliances
3. wage war
realpolitik
realistic politics, success matters more than legality/idealism, do whatever necessary to accomplish goal of strengthening prussia and achieving unification, Bismarck believed in
Franco-Prussian War
Bismarck changed telegram from William to France to seem as if leaders insulted each other, captured Napoleon III, Paris under siege, declared German Empire at versailles, France really pissed
Second Reich
government of german empire
kaiser, Chancellor, Parliament, real power was kaiser, prussian generals, prussian aristocracy, growing middle class
Russian Empire
romanov tsars, little industry, feudalism, large political tension, forced russian language and culture upon many different races
imperialism
policy of empire building, on nation taking over another
for: raw materials, hard currency, markets, land = power, seaports and bases
alliance system
triple alliance with germany, italy, austriahungary
triple entente with france, GB, Russia
if knew what was in alliances, not cuase of war...lack of knowledge --> WWI
militarism
military strength is the source of all security. cause of WWI
Central Powers
austriaHungary, Germany, Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria, fought against by 28 other countries...fought major alliance
total war
all of eaurope and eventually most of world at war with each other
Sarajevo
where archduke of AH assassinated...immediate cause of WWI