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101 Cards in this Set

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Thomas Alva Edison
Industrial Era Inventor from New Jersey.

Invented the lightbulb for one.
John D. Rockefeller
Started Standard Oil Company.

Bought and bought out competitors.

Caused laws banning monopolies.
Social Darwinism
During progress happened when competition defeated the weak.
George Stephenson
Invented locomotive.
Continued to better his invention through 3 (in chrono. order oldest to newest):
Blutcher
Locomotion
Rocket
Alexander Graham Bell
Invented the telephone.

First words:
Mr. Watson, come here, I want to see you.
horizontal intergration
merging of competing companies in one area of business.
Merger
Joining more than one firm/company into one.
What were the improvements of the Agricultural Revolution?
Dikes as protection
Fertilizer
Seed Drill
Better farming methods.
Why did transportation improve during the industrial revolution?
Because there was a greater need for moving goods from place to place.
David Ricardo
**IRON LAW OF WAGES**
Seed Drill
Deposited seeds into rows.
Turnpikes
private roads that required fees for those going on it.
Why did the industrial revolution begin in Britain?
Smith
Capital
Coal
Iron
The Progression toward the Industrial Revolution
Agricultural Revolution

Population Boom

Energy Revolution

Industrial Revolution
**IRON LAW OF WAGES**
Idea that:

good wages-->more babies

more babies-->more labor

more labor-->lower wages
What did the Dutch do during the industrial revolution?
Built dikes that protected the land.
John Kay
Flying Shuttle-device used for weaving in textile mills.
Creoles
Latin Americans of direct European descent.
James Hargreaves
Spinning Jenny--spun more than one thread at same time.
Richard Arkwright
Waterframe--used water as power in order to speed the spinning process.
Laissez Faire
Idea that government did not get involved in business.
Bessemer
(Henry)

British who found out how to turn iron ore into steel.
Jethro Tull
Man who invented the seed drill.

Also the name of a band.
Why did cities grow?
Because they centered around factories, many of the workers in those factories moved to the cities to be closer to their work.
What are four reasons for the population explosion?
Better nutrition
Healthier Babies
Better Medical Services
Slower Death Rate
Adam Smith
Rejected the ideas Mercantilism.
Wrote The Wealth of Nations.
Believed in Laissez Faire (hands off), the idea that there should be no government restrictions or tariffs on trade.
Believed nation's wealth was measured by how many goods and services it has.
What was the average hours of the worker?
12-16 hrs.
What were the working conditions like in the mills, mines, and factories?
Long Hours
Low Pay
Hard Labor
Little Safety
Why did the women and children work?
They needed to support their families.
Luddites
Followed fictional man named Ned Ludd.
Had been put out of work by the machines.
Would go and break the machines.
Darwinism
Only the strongest will survive.
John Wesley
Founded the Methodist Church.
Charles Darwin
Founded the theory of Darwinism.
Urbanization
the movement of people to cities.
What were the improvements of the energy revolution?
Water and Wind mills
**COAL**
Steam Engine
What happened to those who lost land during the enclosure movement?
Either:

Went to work in factories

Immigrated

Went into crime.
Who invented the steam engine?
Thomas Newcomen
Who improved the steam engine?
James Watt
Enclosure Movement
wealthy landowners closed off land to the peasants
Nationalists
Groups of people from the same background should have their own country.
Right-wing Conservatives
To go back to the old ways of monarchy etc.
Were traditionalists.
What was work like?
Very low pay. penny an hour.
Long hours. 12-16
No safety measures taken.
No care if you were sick or hurt.
Children and Women also worked.
Mr. Carlson
Idea for canals, manmade rivers through land (PANAMA, for example) created better access to towns not near water etc.
Vertical Intergration
The merging of companies involved in the different parts of one process.
Herbert Spencer
English Philosopher who believed in Social Darwinism.
Tenement
Housing which was built into many small, crowded apartments
What was one of the necessary things for the industrial revolution to have occured?
Natural Resources
How did the class systems change in Europe because of the Industrial Revolution?
Wealthy families involved in business and industry moved to the upper-class, joining the nobles.
Middle Class grows as their is an increase in merchantsand inventors.
Working Class is created.
Turnpikes
Private roads which people paid fees to travel on.

Invented by Mr. Irving
Dumbell Apartments
Housing Buildings that let in light and air. II
What was city life like?
No sewage system.
Tenements and Dumbell Apartments.
Often no good water.
Diseases were quick to spread.
Very little hygine, such as 360 folk to a toliet.
Pollution.
Laissez Faire
Government does not interfere in business.
Left-wing Liberals
REFORM
LAISSEZ FAIRE
Joseph Lister
Anitseptics=Bye Bye Germs
Louis Pasteur
germs=diesease
pasturization
Interchangable Parts
Helped to speed factory work.
The parts could be used instead of another.
Corporation
business owned by stock-holding investors
Louis Philippe
French called him citizen king.
Charles X cousin. Became King after the revolution of 1830.
His ways gave much help to the higher bourgousie.
King Charles X(10th)
Took the place of his older brother Louis XVIII died.
Went to absolutism despite the charter and left when the liberals began to revolt.(Revolution-1830)
Charter of French Liberties
Started a 2-House Legislature.
Gave some freedom of the press.
Ultra-Royalists
Wanted to go back to Absolutism/Old Regime
What caused the Revolution of 1848?
Recession
Discontent
Revolution of 1848
National Assembly writes constitution for the Second Republic.
One house legis. and all men got vote.
Picked Louis Napoleon as president.
Louis Napoleon
Nephew of Napoleon.
2nd Republic President.
Declared(w/ Plebscite) he emperor.
Assembly Line
Factory method which takes big jobs and splits them into smaller jobs.
Mesizos
Native American and Euro. ancestry
Mulattoes
African and Euro. ancestry
Peninsulares
Those in Latin A. who were BORN in Spain.
Held the important gov and church positions.
Latin America
Central and South America
Simón Bolívar
Fought for Independence in Venezuela, Columbia, y Ecuador.
Toussaint L'Ouverture
Former Slave
Good general
Inspirational Leader
Led the sucessful fight to free the slaves of Haiti
José Morelos
Un Mestizo de Mexico que continuar la revolucion.
Tupac Amaru
Revolted w/ other N/As for their rights but failed.
Dom Pedro
Ruler of Brazil.
Refused to go back to Portugal when the gov. changed.
Declared Brazil independent and he the emperor.
Father Hidalgo
Un cura en Mexico que inspiro a los Mexicanos para revolucion en el discurso "El Grito de Dolores".
Homestead Strike
8 workers are in the Almagated Association of Iron, Steel, and Tin workers.
Want to negotiate wages.
Evil Frick hires Pinkertons and puts up fencing to stop the workers from entering and some get killed in a struggle.
Child Labor
Parents did not make enough money to support family and so the children had to work.
Had long hours and got bad even less than adults (a penny to less than a dollar a week).
Were severly punished when late etc.
No safety and little education.
Andrew Carnigie
Scot who owned Carnegie Steel.
Very wealthy.
Big Philanthropist.
Not good to the workers.
Strike
When workers protest/stop working in protest of an act or advocating for reform.
Cyrus McCormick
Invented the Harvester Machine
Thomas Maltus
Thought the pop. would outsize the food available
Utilitarianism
Jeremy Bentham.
Judge things by the happiness created.
Utopians
Early Socialists
Socialism
The people would own the means of production (farms, factories, railways, businesses).
Society would act for the benefit of everyone, not just the higher classes.
Power Sources of the Industrial Revolution
Steam/Water
Coal
Karl Marx
Communist Manifesto.
History is about class struggle.
Everything traces back to Economics.
Followers Marxists/Communists.
Scientific Method to Socialim (Scientific Socialism).
Populism
For the People
Supporters were workers famers and reformers.
Proletariat
Working Class
Jane Addams
Helped the poor.
Founded the Hull House which was a community center.
Wanted reforms combating the harsh side-effects of industrialization.
Progressive Movement
Against the benefits of the wealthy.
For reforms benefiting the public interest.
Went to the knowledable, not the people, to study the problems.
Josiah Strong
Greatly disliked the cities.
Did not like immigrants/immigration
Ellis Island
A processing center (on an island) that immigrants used to go through before they went to New York.
Tammany Hall
Political machine was held their.
Political Machines
Organizations of a politician that got him votes
Trusts
combinations of companies in an industry.
John Wesley
Started Methodism.
Methodism
Personal Faith
Hope of better life
John Wesley
Communism
Society w/out class system and property owned by all.
Why did immigrants move to the United States?
Hype
"Land of Opportunity"
Freedom of Religion
Where did the immigrants go?
Cities
Jacob Riis
Wrote about and Photographed the conditions in the cities of the industrial revolution
Danish Immigrant