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152 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Job Analysis
devlop and validate measures of job performance
Job analysis
work versus job oriented
work oriented = skills
job oritented = things you have to do (lifting)
PAQ - POsiton Analysis Questionnaire
elements of the job and different facets of job behavior
Performance Evaluation
give feedback, decide on promotions/raises
Performance Evaluation
objective/measurable/#items sold

Subjective/e.g motivation
360 degree measurements
ask boos, peers, self, etc.
Subjective performance evlautions (types)
1. Personal Comparison
2. Critical Incidents
4. BOS (Behavioral Observation Scales)
5. Forcee Choice
Personal Comparison
subjective evalution in which compare worker to peers - reduced some biases but impractical with large # of employees
Critical Incidents
examines - on a Likert scale - very bad or very good performances (e.g. late 2x per week)
rate employee on several dimensions for which anchors are created ona Likert Scale - construct for each job - time consuming but increases accurace
BOS - Behavioral Observation Scales
rater indicats how often employee performs each critical incident
reduces social desirability with grouped statements
Rater Biases
central tendency
halo effect
contrast effect
Halo Effect
if giveemployee high rating on one area, will do so on others
Contrast Effect
when comparing ot other's, give the employee more extreme score than if weren't comparing
Cental Tendency, Leniancy, and Strictnes biases
tend to give same type of rating to all employees
Best way to reduce bias
train the raters to focus on accuracy
Frame-of-reference training
help recognize multidimensionality of job performance
Most valid predictor(s) of performance
cognitive ability tests

job knowledge tests are more valid as job complexity and simlarity to the job increases
Predictors of job performance
cog ability
job knowledge tests
wrok samples (more vlaid w/ tsts of motor versus verbal abilties)
interviews (moderately accurate)
biodata - highly predictive when validated
assessment centers
peronslaity test - only Concient is predictive
interest tests - low validity; good for vocational counselling
Interviews as predictors of job performance
moderately accurate
more so when panel v. individual
negative carries mroe weight
if decision made ealry - superfiical
better when standardized and past-oriented
biodata as predictor of job perfomrance
highly predictive when validated; only slighlty less so that cog ability; high predicitor for turnover
predictors of job performance
cog ability; job knowledge test; work samples;
interviews; biodata;
in-basket test; pers. test;
interest tests
assessment centers
criterion contmination when judge employee as better b/c did job before at Center
personlaity tests
C is predicitice
better than cog ability is the aspect is contexztual (e.g. agreeablness for sales)
interest tests
low validity but good for counselling purposes
Equal Opporutnity OCmmission (EEOC)
sets stsndards for testing
adverse impact
differential selction rate for a group
80% rule (4/5ths)
related to adverse
When is the 80% rule allowed to be broken?
if there is a bona fide occupational qualification
How often is differential validty a problem?
treats scores within a range as equivalent (eg. 91-100); this provides separate cutoffs wtihin group norms
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)\1994
prot4ects people if disability does not effect essential funciton with reasonable accomadation
incremental validity (I/O)
hit rate - base rate
70% valid - 50% (current) = 20% IC
Taylor Russel tables
etimates the incremtnal valdity of a test by using the test's validity coeff., base rate, and selection ratio
What base rate is best for increasing incremental validty
lower, then anyhting will improve it
higher and not too much room for improvement
utility Analysis
cost effectiveness of selection procedure:
years of incumbents, # people to be selected, difference in validity coefficidnt and cost
When is it useful to combine selecton procedures?
When increae in validity coeff.
What procedures can one use to determine increase in valifdity coeff?
multiple regression
multiple cutoff
multiple hurdle
Multiple regression (i/o)
compensatory - a high score on one can make-up for low score on another
Multiple cut-off
must score above on each one
multiple hurdle
only if succeed on one,c anmove onto next
needs analysis
determines what types of training needs to be completed
program design
what does it train on and eg
cost, material, trainees chs.
e.g. vestibule training
vestibule training
type of program design
off-site training but simulates conditions
important when error is serious (e.g. flight training)
program evaluation (Bloom, 72)
1. specify objectives
2. define relevant parameters
3. specify procedures used to achieve goals
4. collect data
career counselling
aptitude tests - high sepcificty and low intercorr wit others
and achievement tests
General APT. test (GABT)
H.S. Seniors and adults
Differential apt. test
measures cognitive and performance in grades 8-12
2 types of theories od career choice
personlaity and stages of vocational devlopment
Holland's Personality and Environmental Typology
6 types
6 personality types:
realistic - machinery
investivative - analytical
artisitc - expressive,
social - avoids machinery
enterprising - manipulates others for economic gain
conventional - data filing
Holland's Personality and Environmental Typology
want congruence between environment and personlaity type
Personality theory of carreer choice uses which 3 tests?
Vocational Preference Iventory
Stong-Cmapbell Interest Inventory
Self-Directed Search
Roe's Fields and Levels Theory
child's experience withparents influences carrer choice and achievment
parents either overprotective, avoidant, or acceptant
Roe's Fields and Levels Theory
how many levles and fileds
8 occupational fields
6 levels
Super's has which theory?
Career and Life Devlopment Theory
Super's stage theory defines maturity in what manner?
mastery of tasks of the devlopmental stage
Howis maturity measured using Super's theory?
Self-Concept Development Inventory or Crite's Career Maturity Inventory
5 Super Stages
Stage 1
birth-15 years
begins dev. of attitudes, interests, needs,, fantasy, play, ability, requirment of thoughts
Super's 5 Stages
Stage 2
15-24 years
occ. exploraton in school, leisure and part-time jobs
Super's 5 Stages
Stage 3
effort to est. permanent place; change in positions and employer, but not in occupation
Super's 5 Stages
Stage 4
contiuein career
Super's 5 Stages
Stage 5
retirent to modification of self-concept
Super's 5 "figures"
1. Life Career Rainbow
2. Archway of Career Determinants
3. Ladder Model iof Life Career Stages
4. Cycling and Recycling Model
5. Web Model
Archway of Career Determinants
interaction of personality and environment (Super)
Life Career Rainbow
- 9 major roles one adopts (parent, spouse, etc.)
Tiedman' & O'Hare (63)
Decision Making Model
Tiedman' & O'Hare (63)'s criticism of Super
Super did not account for makign a life v. just making a living
Tiedman' & O'Hare (63)'s model is based on whose model?
Erickson's ego identity model of psychosocial devlopment
career related to crisis resolutions - differentiation occurs when job does not "fit"
Tiedman' & O'Hare (63)'s different tpyeso fo reality
personal - what is best for me
common - what other's say I should do
Hawthorne effect
giving emploees attention increases productivity
Weber's bureacracy
rational, formal rules leads to effieicny (now held in disregard b/c reduces satsifaction)
open system (past of systems approach)
changes when one element changes
system approach assumptions
1. worker's have diverse needs
2. organizations vary instructure, culture etc. therefore
3. no one managerial strategy fits allorganizations
theory z
combines american (ind. responsiblity) with Japanese consensual decision making, slow promotion, and holisitc knwoledge of the org.
Total Quality Management (TQM)
based on Japanese model
flatten hierarchy (increase teamwork); increased fairness culture; crosstraining of skills; task variety; autonomy; task signifciance and customer contact
feedback from peers
Theory x leader
(McGregor, 60)
work is distateful, economically driven to work, needs direction (poor leader)
Theory Y leader
(McGregor, 60)
human relaitons, work is play, feedom is a value
betterleader and more effective org.
Fielder's Contingency Theory
effectiveness is a combo of style and situation
LPC (and what theory is it related to)
least preferred co-worker scale
Fielder's Contingency Theory
LPC - define orientation syle
if you rate the LPC as positive - primarily relationship oriented
if you rate the LPC as negative then you are task-oriented
LPC - define favorableness
postive relationship with subordinates, task is highly structured, high control over rewards/punnishments
High rater LPC best in ...
Low rater LPC best in ...
...moderately favorable sit
...very high or very low favorable in terms of control
House (78)
Path Goal Theory
Path Goal Theory - basic
motivation and satisfaction are high when leader is helping achieve a goal
Path Goal Theory - how does a leader help?
1. identify goals
2. remove obstacles
3. reward subordinates for accomplishing goals
4 types of leaders a/t to Path Goal Theory
a. instrumental(directive) - clear rules
b. supportive - relationship with subordinates
c. particpative - include in decision making
d. achievement oriented - set challenging goals and incourage increased performance
Hershey and Blanchard (74)
Situational Leadership Model (SLM)
Situational Leadership Model (SLM)
theory of what style of leadership (task and relationship orientations)works best with what level of job maturity of subordinate(willingness and ability to accept responsibilty)
4 styles of leadership - SLM
Telling - high task low rel
Selling - high task high rel
Participating - low task and high rel
Delegating - low task and low rel
(high task and low rel.); subord. low ability and low responsiblty
(high task high rel); subordinate low ability and high resp
(low task and high rel); subordinate high ability and low respon.
( low task and low rel); subordinate high ability and high resp.
Transformational v Transactional
change focused, "vision"; appeals to higher order needs; sacrifice self-intersts for org.
stability and reward/punnishment
Vroom and Yelton's Normative Model of Leadership
extent involve subordinates in decision making
autocratic leaders
A1 don't consult
AII -get info from subord.
consultative leaders
CI - discuss probs with ind.
CII - discuss probs as groups
final deicsion still own
group decision
GII decision through consensus
7 stages od organizatonal devlopment and change
interventions into organization change share 5 chs.
systems approach (change in one, entire system); everyone is invovled; upper managment commits, change is long-term and planned for; change agent can be internal or external
specific interventions into organizations
quality of work life (redesign jobs to increase interet and challenge, andmore deicion making)
organizaitonal surveys (give employees sense of influence)
process consulations
employees are resistnat to change unless...
allowed to particpate
(Hinkin and Schrieshim)
cetnralized organization
wheel with spokes
all iunfo goes through one person/postion
most effieient when simple tasks
satisfaction only at the top
decentralized organization
free communication
works best when tasks are coplex and cooperation necessary
increaed job satisfaction
rational economic model of individualized decision making
optimal solution
weigh all alternatives "maximizing"
needs info., time, ability to process without bias
administrative model of individualized decision making
1st solution that is minimally acceptable; "satisficingc"; time contraints eliminate ability to perfect rationality
Driver's Decision Making Model
2 factors
1. amount of information considered at the analysis stage (satisficer v. maximaizer)
2. number of alternative deicisons considered at the solution formation stage (uni or multi focused_
Driver's Model - 5 types of decision makers
Decisive - satisficer/unifocs
infelxible, pick and stick
Flexible- sat/multi; pick and drop
Hierarchic - maximizer/uni;
rigid, plan, overontrolled
Integrative- max/multi
creative, wrok groups
Systemic - Integrative and Hierarchic - apply details now but look to long-term
good managers...
match their styles to the needs of the comapny
Prospect theory
Kaneman and Tversky
influenced more by potential losses than by potential gains
* not based on logic (e.g. gambling)
* take a risk to avoid suffering a loss but take less risk to exp. gain
Physical Appearance affects job according to gender...
diadvantage to woemn and advantage to men
Male and female leadership styles
1. do not markendy differ
2. f > concernved with interpersonal rel andparticpatporty style
m > task oriented, accomplishment; directive
Evalutions (gender diffs)
w (slightly) less favorable, esp. if use "male" autocratic styles
m are not rated less favorable if use >participatory styles
wages (gender diffs)
women earn 60cents for every $1 males earn; use job evals to reach "value"
work performance =
motivation x ability
(ability is more important)
need theories of motivation
Aderfer's ERG
McClelland's Need For Ach
Herzberg's 2 Factor Theory
Job Chs. Model
Aderfer's ERG
3 needs: existence, relatedness, & growth
McClelland's Need For Achievement
uses TAT to find primary motivator
nPOW - need forpower; effective managers
nAFF - sensitive, avoids conflict
nAcH - work hard, related to entrepeneurial success
Herzberg's 2 factor theory
motivation and satisfaction
result: increase enrichment of job (more challenge, dm, opportunities) versus "job enlargement" which is just increasing variety of tasks
hygiene factors
Herzberg's 2 factor theory
lower order needs (e.g. pay)
necessary but insufficient condition
Herzberg's 2 factor theory
(e.g. responsiblity, decision making) - these increase satisfaction but don't lower satisfaction if absent
Herzberg's 2 factor theory
research findings
both factors increase satisfaction and reduce absenteeism with more effect on young, well educated and high nAch
Hackman and Oldman
Job Characteristic Model: - 5 chs that increase internal motivation, satisfaction, quality, and turnover
5 chs of Job Characteristic Model
1. skill variety
2. task identity (whole v. piecemeal)
3. autonomy (dm authority)
4. task significance (meaning)
5. Feedback - built in is the best
Job Diagnostic Survey and Job Chs Inventory
Hackman and Oldman
Job Characteristic Model
rsch - redesigning jobs acording to the model increases motivation and satisfaction but not job quality
Goal setting theory
acceptance and committment to goals is important (not setting them)
specific and moderately difficult goals with feedback max achievement
incentive adds little
Goal setting theory
rsh findings
goal setting IS imp (vs. theory)
incentive adds little to mot and sat; similar effects for male and female
Equity Theory
motivation is a f. of:
1. effort--> successful perf.
2. instrumentality (Perf willlead to certain outcomes)
3. Valence - desirability of outcomes
reinforcement hteory
1. poeple do things with rewarding outcomes
2. avoid negative outcomes
3. stop behavior if reinforcement stops
incentive theory
most effective material rewards are flexible b/c provides for a variety of behaviors
Peersonality Chs leading to job satisfaction
older, higher level inorganization, white
Job chs. leading to job satisfaction
high pay (confounded with correlates); fairness, being able to utilize one's skills
consequences of satisfaction
reduces turnover (moderated by performance level only for poor perf.); if connected to performance, increases satsifaction, if not, reduces satsifaction; increases longeivty more thanhealth or smoking; dissatisfaction reduced mental andphysical health
consequences of satisfaction
1. turnover
2. satisfaction
3. longevity
4. health
person-machine systems
both needed
person is more lfexible but less consistent
compressed work week
higher sat, lower absenteeism, productivity may be lessened in some case ssuch as manual labor; women like less b/c of dual roles
increases sat, att. towards job, reduces absenteeism, unclear effect on profductivity
shift work
lower productivity on night shift; more errors, more accidents; rotating shift is the worst; younger adapt better
fatigue helped by
rest breaks and starting prior to fatigue setting in
fatigue causes
more errors, injury, redcued sat.
stress increases with
less control over work environement, violence, downsizing
Type A
high hostility and anger causes heart diease; prone to stress
high work ethic increases health
potential response to chronic stress
more in women, singles, divorced, little opp for promotion, high client contact
work-family conflict
increases stress; more in women
human error accounts for ___% of accidents
human error is increased with the following factors
younger, noxious environemental variables; alchol use; poor safety; emotional instability (low trust, depressed, pessimistic); poor vision
trainign most effective when
combo of postivie attitude
1. posotive is better than scare tactics
2. must be specific (v.s "think safe)
3. management committment
4. incentives for fewer accidents
noise: which is the worst: contstant or intermittent
simple or compex task
control or no control
no perceived control