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42 Cards in this Set

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Indus river delta
settled at the same time as the rest of the river delta civilizations
highly diversified
main cities Mohenjo-daro and Harappa contains the roots of the identity of the people
Dravidian people
Massive cities made out of baked clay
urban civilizations, central government. system of writing, metal age began around 2000 bc, had huge cities of 30,000 people in 2000bc the aryran people invaded
Mohenjo Daro
the city was built as a grid, utilitarian culture
Great Bath Mohenjo-daro in Pakistan built ca 2600- 1900 BCE
abanoned
Citadel with stuppa 2300bc
highly organized structure
stuppa holds ashes of Buddha
Robed male figure Mohenjo-daro pakistan 2600-1900bce
stealite 7in high may be praying or meditating
seal with a seated figure in yoga position- Mohenjo-daro 2600-1900bce
tiger = strength, phallus, signature
Impact of the Aryan people
destroyed culture, subjected the Durvian people to the caste system
brought creation myth ans and Sanskrit
came from the Caucasian mts
1500-1200
Buddha
means the awakened one
first Buddha was Siddartha Gautama
ca 563-483bc
born to Hindu world dies at 80 of food poisoning, prince of the Shakya clan
born in Lumbini meditated in Bodh Gaya, preached in Sarnath, died in Kusinagara
Dream of Queen Maya
Born as the result of a dream-white elephant visited her
The life and death of the Buddha
frieze from Gandhara Pakistan
2nd century
Story of Buddha
born from mothers side took 7 steps in each direction, held at palace until 29 met a sick man, old man, dead man, and a holy man, leaves palace to take up a life of a yogi, made 5 friend, searched for 6 years fro enlightenment, close to death little girl brings a bowl of rice, meditates fro 49 days when demon mara comes and tries to seduces him with his daughters then says he didn't give alms, Buddha touches the earth to witness that he did then he reaches enlightenment, preached 1st sermon at Sarnath
Buddhas 4 noble truths
to be is to suffer, the cause for suffering is desire, to eliminate suffering one must eliminate desire, the way to eliminate desire is to follow Noble eightfold path
The Noble Eight path
1. Right views
It begins with the intuitive insight that all beings are subject to suffering and it with complete understanding of the true
2. Right Inclinations
Commitment to ethical and mental self-improvement
The intention of renunciation of desire
Intention of good will, meaning resistance to feelings if anger or aversion try no to tharm
3. Right Sayings
Tell the truth, to speak friendly, warmly, and gently and talk only when necessary
4. Right Conduct
Act kindly and compassionately, be honest, to respect the belongings, keep sexual relationships harmless
5. Right Livelihood
One should earn ones living in righteous way and wealth should be gained legally and peacefully
6. Right Endeavor
Without effort, which in itself is an act of will, nothing can be achieved
7. Right Mindfulness
Controlled and perfected faculty of cognition
Enable us to be aware of the process if conceptualization in a way that we actively observe and control the way our thoughts go
8. Right Meditations
Wholesome concentration wholesome thoughts and actions
Practice of meditation to focus on a selected object
Death of Buddha
reached Nirvana-when all desire has been eliminated one realizes clearly and immediately the bliss of Buddhahood one is then release from the wheel of incarnations
Development of Buddism
500-250bc oral transmission of teachings, In the 1 century there was a schism,
Mahayana Buddhism
bodhisattva and an elaborate cosmology and pantheon of deities
Varirayana Buddhism
tibetan buddism- 500ad icludes tantras, ancient Indian text, ritual, gesture, sound and visualization devices as means to attain spiritual perfection
Vairochanna
the great buddha enthroned in the center of the univese in a lotus flower suronded by thousand buddhas 4 buddhas of the 4 directions Vairochana and the four Buddhas make 5 bodies of the budda
Golden light-bindu
Bun of hair-usnisha
Tufted of white hair-urna
leaf shaped eyelids
mask like facial features
distended earlobes
3 rings of flesh on neck
protection, benevolence and peace, dispelling of fear
offering, giving, welcome, charity, compassion and sincerity.
explanation teaching
turning the wheel of the the law
gesture of touching the earth
meditation mudra
The Mauryan dynasty
322-185bc
Alexander the Great conquers India
Ashoka of the Mauryan dynasty
becomes buddhist saint
Along pathways where people will find them top with animals
Lions, bull, horse, elephant
Words inscribed on them
The world is the mountain and inside the mountain is a shaft
To symbolize the law of the dharma
erected by Ashoka in Sarnath 250BCe
sandstone Monolithic column
Capital
Abacus
Chakra – wheel
Chakravartin – holder of the wheel
Gret Stuppa Sanchi, India- 3rd century bc stuppas a places where Buddha was
Gret Stuppa Sanchi, India- 3rd century bc stuppas a places where Buddha was
Stuppas
4 entrances of the village
central pt was a tree
pre-buddihst influences
myth of creation-
detail of eastern gateway, Great Stupa, Sanchi, India, mid first century BCE to early first century CE. Yakshi_ female tree and fertility spirit tribangha – three-bends pose Jakatas – Buddha’s past lives
cave at Kali 100ad
Couple, Great Chaitya Hall, Karli, Maharastra, Andhra Period, early 2nd c.A.D. Mithuna – happy couple: youthful promise
Kushan dynasty
50-320 ad
We have no imagery of the empire
But introduces Buddhist law and monks travel and spread Buddhism
Coming to area where Alexander conquered they do not meet and kind resistance they rake north section of India
They settle 2 centers of command- summers they go north winters they go south

iconic images of the Buddha
Kanishka I third Kushan ruler, crowned 128 AD at Peshawar
Capitals: Peshawar and Mathura
Monument of himself
Establishing a new dynasty
Massive boots, massive coat and sword
first image of the Buddha
The earliest dated stone image by monk Bala in the third year of the reign of Kanishka (131 AD)
Kushan Grandhara style
Meeting of Buddhist thought and Romano-Greco style

Hard draperies, oval faces, straight noses, high arched eyebrows.
Standing Boddhisatva, Kushan Gandhara style, 2nd c. A.D., sandstone, Boston Museum of Fine Arts.Mahayana Buddhism
A person who achieves enlightenment
Is a person who walks on earth who help other people achieve enlightenment a spiritual princes fully alive one
Meditating Buddha, from Gandhara, Pakistan, second century CE. Gray schist, 3’ 7 1/2” high