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146 Cards in this Set

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Do we tend to see things through “our own lens”
based on our values, assumptions, and beliefs and an assumption that others are like ourselves?
ethnocentrism
the tendency to believe one's own culture is best
Cultural
Unstated assumptions and values (valuations)
Unstated assumptions and values (valuations). Can lead to
“culture shock” and other bad outcomes
Subcultures - Roberts (1951, described in Triandis, 1980)
identified 578 Navajo cultural elements but only 154 were common to three groups.
Onion models of culture
Inner-most:
Outer layers:
Onion models of culture: Inner-most
Values and assumptions
Onion models of culture: Outer layers
Behaviors, customs, rituals, language, etc.
Onion models of culture: Outer layers Some models
“Nationalism” as an outer-most layer.
Etic vs. Emic: coined by
Kennith Pike, a linguist who sought to unify linguistics and behavioral science (his main contributions were to cultural anthropology)
Etic and Emic have been used for a
variety of meanings (Headland, 1990)
Triandis (1980) sees Emic as
refering to culture-specific elements,
Triandis (1980) sees Etic as
refers to universal elements
James Lett's website summarizes Pike this way: “the emic perspective focuses on the
intrinsic cultural distinctions that are meaningful to the members of a given society... native members of a culture are the sole judges of the validity of an emic description.
James Lett's website summarizes Pike this way: The etic perspective ... relies upon the
extrinsic concepts and categories that have meaning for scientific observers....
Who are the sole judges of the validity of an etic account.”
Scientists
IMO, in psychology, Emic usually means an
“insider's view”
MO, in psychology, Etic implies an
“outsider's view”
IMO, in psychology, Emic usually means an “insider's view” while Etic implies an “outsider's view”; For example
if I translate the American, English-language 16PF into Chinese for use in China, the 16PF can be said to be measuring an etic construct (or just etic). An emic approach would be to do the lexical analysis and exam development in China using Chinese experts. The dangers of the first approach are that the translated 16PF might seem foreign to Chinese respondents and that it might miss uniquely Chinese aspects of personality. One advantage of this approach (assuming the Chinese 16PF has a factor structure similar to the original) is that I achieve a kind of universal personality model.
Cheung, Three approaches one could take:
etic; emic; blended approach
Cheung, etic approaches were used first in...
Why
Western psychology

got started earlier
Cheung, An (“imposed etic”) example would be
translating the NEO into Chinese and testing the invariance across US and Chinese samples; these studies have often shown good cross-cultural validity for models like Big Five
Cheung, The etic approach tends to be methodologically
rigorous, although the authors are critical of lack of investigation of “construct bias” and “method bias”
Cheung, The etic approach tends to be theoretically
barren (simply impose western results on a culturally unique sample)
Cheung, The emic approach Create personality measures using
local thinking, including using indigenous constructs or using the lexical hypothesis on indigenous languages
Cheung, The emic approach Sometimes not
rigorous (as compared to modern Western methods)
Sometimes emphasizing cultural
uniqueness (underrating the “fit” of etic constructs)
Cheung, The emic approach Tends to find
differences (e.g., a sixth Big 5 factor in one Hong Kong study; openness tends NOT to be found in Asian research)
Cheung, The emic approach Indigenous scales do not necessarily improve
prediction
Cheung, The emic approach _____ ______ do not necessarily improve prediction
Indigenous scales
Cheung, The emic approach One methodological problem is that without _________ for western constructs, you could find the same _________, _________ them differently, and mistakenly conclude that the indigenous constructs ______ _____ from western constructs
markers
constructs
rotate
differ totally
Cheung, The blended approach Integrate
western constructs with indigenous constructs (assume both emic and etic constructs are important)
Cheung, The blended approach May include using both
etic and emic measures or mixed-methods research (e.g., administering an etic measure and interviewing about emic constructs)
Hall, was an influential
anthropologist who was interested in communication and culture
Hall, Context:
High and low context
Hall, Context refers to the way members
communicate and share information in a culture.
Etic
Global
Impose an external model
Hall, Context:
high context
little information is shared explicitly as more information is carried by the context
Hall, Context:
low context
more information must be conveyed explicitly.
Hall, Context: high context usually also implies that the actors in a situation have
close, long-term relationships, while those in a low context have less knowledge of each other.
Hall, Context: If an outsider enters a high context situation
they might seem or feel to be an outsider and perhaps ignorant.
Hall, Context: person immigrating from a high- to a low-context culture
might seem needy or lacking in independence.
Time Sense:
Polychronicity and Monochronicity
Polychronicity-Monochronicity is based on the work of
Hall (1959) and may be less empirically based than Hofstede's work (Dahl, 2004).
Monochronic cultures tend to prefer doing
one thing at a time until it is finished. Interruptions are generally viewed negatively
Monochronic cultures: There is a preference for
order and planning.
individuals in polychronicistic cultures tend to be
involved with many things at once.
individuals in polychronicistic cultures Time is viewed as
continuous and without particular structure. Detailed planning is not a value.
In a sample of train operators (in the US) Conte & Jacobs (2003) linked
polychronicity to
conscientiousness (negatively), Extraversion (positively),
increased absence, lateness for work, and poorer supervisory ratings.
Because this dimension was not developed using factor analysis (like
Hofestede's) it may not be similar in character to Hofstede's dimensions. For
example, I found references claiming that both the US and Japan were on
Page 9either end of this spectrum. This dimension may vary in more complex ways
within a culture. For example, schedules, deadlines, appointment times, etc.
may have different meanings within different cultures.
.
DNA determines
how the cells of our body behave and replicate
themselves (i.e., produce proteins, enzymes, RNA, etc.)
A genome
is the technical term for what we mean when we say “DNA”
A child's genome is composed of her parents'
genomes, each parent
(typically) contributes 50% of the child's genome
All living things have ________ and the genomes of very different
animals can have a degree _______ thus, all the manifest differences
we see in human populations are due to relatively small differences in
_______________;
DNA (or RNA)
of similarity (98% of genes are shared
between humans and chimpanzees);
genomes
the manifestation of small differences in genomes must be
________________yet the operation
of individual genes often ___________
fair large (e.g., human vs. chimp or human vs. snail)

seems to be subtle
A gene was conceptualized as the basic unit by __________
which heredity
operates (e.g., “It's common to read that there is a gene for eye
color.”)
A _________was conceptualized as the basic unit by which heredity
operates (e.g., “It's common to read that there is a gene for eye
color.”)
gene
Modern genetic thinking is still evolving on exactly what a ____
is...
gene
________ are segments of the DNA sequence, but in many organisms (including humans) there appear to be stretches of DNA that are not part of any gene (___________)
Genes
“junk DNA”
Wikipedia says: “a gene is a portion of DNA that contains both '_____sequences that determine what the gene does, and '______sequences that determine when the gene is active (expressed)”
coding
non-coding'
Wikipedia says: “a gene is a portion of DNA that contains both 'coding' ________________, and 'non-coding' _________________”
sequences that determine what the gene does

sequences that determine when the gene is active (expressed)
But genes are not __________, like beads on a string; they overlap and have other oddities [Show Figure from Pesole,
2008 study]
lined up discretely
Genes have specific locations on ____________
chromosomes (the same genes
can occur in different organisms in different places on their
chromosome)
So, the human genome project attempted to split DNA into
_____________
genes
Only ______ of genes appear to encode proteins, the rest produce
RNA with other functions (or appear to have no function at all)
1-2%
Only 1-2% of genes appear to encode __________, the rest produce
RNA with other functions (or appear to have no function at all)
proteins
Only 1-2% of genes appear to encode proteins, the rest produce
_________ with other functions (or appear to have no function at all)
RNA
Only 1-2% of genes appear to ________proteins, the rest produce
RNA with other functions (or appear to have no function at all)
encode
A genotype is the
genetic make-up of an individual (usually confined
to a single characteristic)
What is the relationship between phenotypes and genotypes?
.
A phenotype is
the manifestation of a
genotype.
Genes are thought to be the result of
evolutionary processes.
We think of evolutionary adaptation as occurring through
natural selection of inherited characteristics (rather than, say, Lamarkism)
Evolution generally takes
many, many millennia
But some species have become extremely diverse ________
in a few millennia (e.g., dogs)
I'm not going to lecture on evolutionary topics, except that we
will discuss Flynn's results and how these refute eugenics arguments
.
generally takes many, many millennia
Evolution
Behavioral genetics is
the study of how genetic information shapes behavior
How would genes affect behavior?
o Still in it's infancy
Predispositions, Interplay
Twin studies (to disentangle
nature vs. nurture)
__________ is proportion of variance accounted for by heredity
Heritability estimate (HE)
Are correlations always causal in twin studies? Why/why not?
.
Raised apart vs. raised together
But is anyone really raised “together”?
Phenotype (P) =
Genotype (G) + Environment (E)
Heritability estimates are often misinterpreted. Heritability refers to the proportion
of variation between individuals in a
population that is influenced by genetic factors.
Heritability describes the
population, not individuals within that population.
For example, It is incorrect to say that since the heritability of a personality trait is about .6, that means that 60% of your personality is inherited from your parents and 40% comes from the environment.
.
The heritability estimate changes according to the _______ and _________ variability present in the ___________.
genetic and environmental variability present in the population.
In studies of genetically identical inbred animals, all traits have ______ heritability. Heritability estimates can be much higher in __________ populations under very homogeneous environments.
zero
outbred (genetically variable)
A highly genetically loaded trait (such as eye color) still assumes ___________ input within normal limits (a certain range ________________________. A more useful distinction than "nature vs. nurture" is _____________ v _______________
environmental
of temperature, oxygen in the atmosphere, etc.)
"obligate vs. facultative"
"obligate vs. facultative"
-- under _______________, what traits are more "obligate" (e.g., the nose -- ______________) or more "facultative" (____________________).
typical environmental ranges
everyone has a nose
sensitive to environmental variations, such as specific language learned during infancy
"obligate vs. facultative"
Another useful distinction is between traits that are likely to be _________
(such as_____) vs. those that are __________ of adaptations
(such the white color of bones), or are due to _______variation (non-adaptive variation in, say, nose shape or size).
adaptations
the nose
byproducts
random
General finding is that both intelligence and personality seem to be very___________
“inheritable”
General finding is that both _________________ seem to be very “inheritable”
intelligence and personality
General finding is that both intelligence and personality seem to be very “inheritable”
o Over ____ for Intelligence
50%
General finding is that both intelligence and personality seem to be very “inheritable”
o Over 50% for __________
Intelligence
General finding is that both intelligence and personality seem to be very “inheritable”
o Over 50% for Intelligence
o Lower but substantial figures for _________
 Plomin and Caspi (1999) published an influential chapter that reports Loehin's 1992 twin results of r=___/____ (MZ/HZ) for extraversion and___/___for neuroticism
personality
.51
.18
.46/.20
General finding is that both intelligence and personality seem to be very “inheritable”
o Over 50% for Intelligence
o Lower but substantial figures for personality:
 Plomin and Caspi (1999) published an influential chapter that reports Loehin's 1992 twin results of r=.51/.18 (MZ/HZ) for _____________ and .46/.20 for
extraversion
neuroticism
General finding is that both intelligence and personality seem to be very “inheritable”
o Over 50% for Intelligence
o Lower but substantial figures for personality:
 Plomin and Caspi (1999) published an influential chapter that reports Loehin's 1992 twin results of r=.51/.18 (MZ/HZ) for extraversion and .46/.20 for neuroticism
 Plomin & Caspi then double the difference to estimate HE
(60% for _________ and 50% for _________)
extraversion
neuroticism
General finding is that both intelligence and personality seem to be very “inheritable”
o Over 50% for Intelligence
o Lower but substantial figures for personality:
 Plomin and Caspi (1999) published an influential chapter that reports Loehin's 1992 twin results of r=.51/.18 (MZ/HZ) for extraversion and .46/.20 for neuroticism
 Plomin & Caspi then double the difference to estimate HE
(______ for extraversion and ______ for neuroticism)
60%
50%
Houw would genes influence behavior - we have evidence form analysis of _________ that suggests a _______ ________ ________, but we have little evidence of ____ _______ that influence or causse behavior
twins
strong genetic component
specific genes
How would genes influence ______________ - we have evidence form analysis of twins that suggests a _______ ________ ________, but we have little evidence of a specific gene that _______ __ _________ ____________
behavior
influence or causse behavior
Molecular genetic analysis tries to identify _____ related to
_______
genes
behaviors
______ ________ _________ tries to identify genes related to
behaviors;
Molecular genetic analysis
Molecular genetic analysis tries to i________ _________related to
behaviors;
dentify genes
Molecular genetic analysis tries to identify genes related to
behaviors:
Plomin & Spinath are very concerned about
identifying _______ explaining ______ of variance
QTL's
< 1%
Plomin & Spinath are very concerned about
identifying QTL's explaining < 1% of variance of what
Molecular genetic analysis tries to identify genes related to
behaviors;
Multiple genes are related to _____ ________ (add up lots of
QTL's)
most behaviors
________ _______ are related to most behaviors (add up lots of
QTL's)
Multiple genes
Genes are only related ______ to behaviors and measured traits
(as compared to something like eye-color, which is strongly
related to a small number of genes)
weakly
Genes are only related weakly to _________ _____ __________
(as compared to something like eye-color, which is strongly
related to a small number of genes)
behaviors and measured traits
Genes are only related weakly to behaviors and measured traits
(as compared to something like eye-color, which is strongly
related to __ _______ _______ ________ ________)
a small number of genes)
DRD4 dopamine receptor and novelty seeking (Neuroticism? or Extraversion and Conscientiousness?)
The effect size is ________ and so power is ______and a significant relation was found in _____ of 11 studies
So, sensation seeking is an attempt to compensate for lower dopamine reception?
tiny (1-6%)
low
six
DRD4 dopamine receptor and novelty seeking ________ (personality trait)
The _____ _____ is tiny (1-6%) and so ______ is low and a ________ __________ was found in six of 11 studies
So, sensation seeking is an attempt to compensate for lower ________ ____________?
(Neuroticism? or Extraversion and Conscientiousness?)
effect size
power
significant relation
dopamine reception
Environment includes all influences other than
genetics
_______ includes all influences other than genetics
Environment
Environments
Natal
family
Nutrition
Non-shared environment
natural differences
non-shared
birth order, sibling age spacing
perceptions of parental treatment
Which environment plays a larger role
shared or non shared
non-shared
Environmental influences
lead paint eating
People probably seek out different environments, based on their _________ and ______________
o People differing in _________ may experience the same
environment differently
intelligence and personality
intelligence
QTL
quantitative trait loci
Quantitative traits refer to ___________ that vary in degree and can be attributed to _________ ____________
phenotypes (characteristics)
polygenic effects, i.e., product of two or more genes, and their environment.
Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) are _______ _____ _________containing or linked to the genes that underlie a _________ ____________
stretches of DNA
quantitative trait
_________ ___________ refer to phenotypes (characteristics) that vary in degree and can be attributed to polygenic effects, i.e., product of two or more genes, and their environment.
________ _________ _________are stretches of DNA containing or linked to the genes that underlie a quantitative trait
Quantitative traits
Quantitative trait loci (QTLs)
Hot Intelligence 4 assumptions
IQ is only one, and a limited, predictor of important life events
• Interpersonal skills and IQ are only loosely associated
• Interpersonal skills are more important than IQ
• Therefore, interpersonal skills should be viewed as a form of
intelligence
Hot Intelligence 4 assumptions:
____ is only one, and a _______ predictor of important life events
IQ
limited,
Hot Intelligence 4 assumptions:
Interpersonal skills and IQ are only ________ associated
loosely
Hot Intelligence 4 assumptions:
________ and ____ are only loosely associated
Interpersonal skills and IQ
Hot Intelligence 4 assumptions:
Interpersonal skills are _______ __________than IQ
more important
Hot Intelligence 4 assumptions:
___________ __________ are more important than _____
Interpersonal skills
IQ
Hot Intelligence 4 assumptions:
Interpersonal skills are more important than IQ Therefore, ___________ should be viewed as a form of intelligence
interpersonal skills
Hot Intelligence 4 assumptions:
Therefore, interpersonal skills should be viewed as a form of intelligence why
because they are more important than IQ
Edward Thorndike - known for
early contributions to learning theory
Thorndike - created
Alpha Beta batteries
Thorndike on intelligence - 3 facets
Abstract
Mechanical
Social
Thorndike on intelligence - Abstract
Traditional as measured by IQ test
Thorndike on intelligence - Mechanical
visualize relationships among objects and understand how the physical world works
Thorndike on intelligence - Social
function successfully in interpersonal relationships
Act wisely in human relations
Thorndike on intelligence - Traditional as measured by IQ test
Abstract
Thorndike on intelligence - visualize relationships among objects and understand how the physical world works
Mechanical
Thorndike on intelligence - function successfully in interpersonal relationships
Act wisely in human relations
Social
Abstract
Mechanical
Social intelligence
Thorndike
Who started the great debate on single or multiple intelligences
Thorndike
Was Thorndike successful in measuring social intelligence?
No
Measures of social intelligence were correlated with
extraversion and IQ measures