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178 Cards in this Set

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Ideology
set of values or ideas that we use to make sense of the world we live in
codified ideology
we don't think about them anymore
ex: laws
dominant ideology
what most people believe and accept as normal
myth of classlessness
we believe we will get the best
folk artist
the only person they have to worry about is themself. they create entertainment for their own enjoyment
mass artist
trying to please other people and sell art commercially
fine artist
not dependent on the audience or technology, but still they want to entertain others
cognitive response
intellectual response
effective response
tastes, visions, understandings. shaped by one's past. natural, normal and can't be argued
Humans are a product of ________
ideologies
conflict (4 types)
man vs. man
man vs. self
man vs. nature
man vs. society

every story must have one
exposition
setting, time, weather, place, era etc. It's boring but we must know it
suspension of disbelief
we accept certain things that don't make sense (Jurassic Park)
rising action
moving towards something (many events)
obligatory moment
protagonist and antagonist must confront eachother for final resolution (climax)
Ideology
set of values or ideas that we use to make sense of the world we live in
codified ideology
we don't think about them anymore
ex: laws
dominant ideology
what most people believe and accept as normal
myth of classlessness
we believe we will get the best
folk artist
the only person they have to worry about is themself. they create entertainment for their own enjoyment
mass artist
trying to please other people and sell art commercially
fine artist
not dependent on the audience or technology, but still they want to entertain others
cognitive response
intellectual response
effective response
tastes, visions, understandings. shaped by one's past. natural, normal and can't be argued
Humans are a product of ________
ideologies
conflict (4 types)
man vs. man
man vs. self
man vs. nature
man vs. society

every story must have one
exposition
setting, time, weather, place, era etc. It's boring but we must know it
suspension of disbelief
we accept certain things that don't make sense (Jurassic Park)
rising action
moving towards something (many events)
obligatory moment
protagonist and antagonist must confront eachother for final resolution (climax)
tension releasers
bits of comedy that allow the audience to laugh and break the tension of rising action
alternation
funny w/ tense, funny w/ fear, etc. to create a rhythm
artificial construction
obligatory moment is UNREAL
well-made
creates best suspense. romanticized to what we want to see
romanticism
rose colored vision of the world
villain and hero must be ________
equal
deus ex machina
"god of machine". divine rescue. luck that allows the hero to win the equal match with the villain
formulaic
storytelling that is predictable in order to keep the audience interest
thematic content
challenges the way we think, often attacking dominant ideology
denouement
summarizes what has taken place
ex: mysteries
de rigeur ending
ending that is so familiar that it becomes rigid. predictable because of repetition
O Henry ending
a story that has a sudden ironic twist and therefore many layers
irony
when something has 2 or more meanings in direct contrast with eachother. fate plays tricks on someone
ambiguity
actions have multiple effects that cannot be predicted
tragedy
(individual) someone heroic must have a tragic flaw and fall from grace (suffering) which leads to enlightenment
hubris
pride. classic flaw of tragic hero
catharsis
purging of pity (for fellow man) and fear (for our safety)
comedy
(group) man cannot fail to achieve what is expected of him. STEREOTYPES. guaranteed survival.
3 things that guarantee survival
1. money and wealth
2. sex
3. food
character
in the presence of someone real. emotional ambiguity=wide range of conflicting emotions
situation
we identify with this and not the stereotype. it's what makes prescribed characters interesting
drama
empathy with a singular realistic character
ex: American Beauty
comedy
comic detachment from characters
ex: the office (british)
melodrama
empathy with the situation
ex: Grey's Anatomy
farce
comic detachment from the situations
ex: Everybody Love Raymond
zipkoon
loud, obnoxious, urban, black character. simple, lazy etc.
Thomas "Daddy" Rice
pioneered minstrel shows in 1828 from variety shows at small town theaters
Black face characters
Northern concepts of what blacks look like. "Jim Crow"
Dan Emmett
(1843) wrote southern anthem "Dixie" and put together performers to travel the countryside
Bert Williams
pioneer in black performing. refused stereotypes. first black to perform in white minstrel shows
TOBA
Theater Owners Booking Association (aka Tough on Black Asses)
E.P. Christy
added one white face to minstrel show and came up with the formula of arch of performers in front of arch of chorus
Al Jolson
greatest performer of his time. epitomized acting style of minstrel shows
Why were minstrel shows popular? (3)
1. unsophisticated humor for rural America
2. exaggeration of the stupidity of blacks
3.white performers took black comedy and "cleaned it up"
Stephen Foster
premier composer for minstrel shows. "O Susanna", "Camptown Races"
bravura
comic exaggeration. tradition of over the top performing styles
exs: Jim Carrey, Will Ferrell, Kramer
1890
minstrel shows got competition from burlesque, vaudeville and motion pictures
the gaze
the power to look at someone or something (usually the masculine prerogative)
media standards of beauty
impossible
Burlesque had been....
the idea of looking at women's bodies
Commedia del arte
European street theater with pronounced stereotypes leads to burlesque
zanni
clowns based on ethnic stereotypes that were loud buffoons.
lazzis
improvised, fast, humorous bits performed originally by zannis
soubrette
classic woman clown. usually wisecracking older woman with running commentary on the heroine's actions
ex: Karen from Will and Grace
"The Black Crook"
(1866) beginning of burlesque, combined french ballet and melodrama. negative connotation
"Mazeppa" and Ida Aza Menken
play about serving wench who falls in love with prince saves him and is killed. SCANDALOUS because of showing of body. Ida=actress
living tableaux
stage of 3-dimensional pictures
Sliding Billy Watson and his beef trust
chorus girls were 6' tall and 250 pounds (standard of beauty at the time)
old burlesque
comedians and parody (formless)
new burlesque
sex jokes and strippers (c. 1915)
formless comedy
no particular structure. improvisational. audience involvement
double entendre
2 meanings (one is usually sexual or vulgar)
ad libbing
creating the humor as you go along. the audience decides
episodic
moments can be interchanged with eachother
topicality
references within the current time frame to make the audience laugh (relevance)
Minsky's
peak of burlesque. family owned clean theaters, but by 1936 burlesque in driven out of NYC
scatological
designed to be about subjects that offend people
how does NEW differ from OLD burlesque? (6)
-linear rather than episodic
-straight man/stooge setup
-emphasis on scatological and double entendre
-mechanical in nature
-sex becomes part of humor
-more bravura
modern burlesque
Family Guy, Beavis and Butthead, etc.
vaudeville
-reaction to "seediness" of burlesque
-about being wholesome
-stereotypical humor
-appealed to working class
-variety acts
Tony Pastor
opened Pastor House for wholesome entertainment in 1881
Keith Albee Circuit
system that wanted to standardize vaudeville acts, so they moved away from spontaneity
Orphuem Circuit
biggest circuit, major cities
Pantages Circuit
southern California circuit
George Burns
stand up comic. wife Gracie Allen is the straight man to his stooge, this fails so they switch roles and succeed
UBO
United Booking Office (NYC). helped circuits run and reviewed acts for big circuits
Tin Pan Alley
traditional, comfortable, 2.5 minute songs with nice, rhyming melodies and themes that everybody loves
monolgist
talk and give monologues (very popular)
sketch act
doing small parts of plays and sketches
ex: Marx Brothers
eccentric acts
did as many odd things as one could possibly imagine, unique
ex: little man with big feet
malapropisms
confusing 2 words that sound similar to create an atmosphere about the character
developmental comedy
linear. must go in a specific order to make sense
ex: Who's on first
verbal circumlocution
talking around a misunderstanding. never quite working out the confusion
3 E's
exaggeration (of stupidity of stooge), elaboration (starts simple and gets complicated), escalation (each time they return to the joke it gets faster)
First mass art
publishing (beginning in the 1850's)
Gentlemen's Press
(1790's-1840's) publishing houses that wrote fiction under the pretense that only certain people could write and read. authors must pay to get their work published
Edgar Allen Poe
created American short story and detective genre. tales of horror and suspense. oppressed by gentlemen's press
Penny dreadfuls
cost a penny for 3-4 pages of sensational journalism
mid 19th century newspapers
political, partisan press
Dime novels
(1850's-1915ish) little magazines with 3-6 chapters of a longer story
3 major events in movement toward mass publishing
1. rotary press- lettering on a drum
2. synthetic glue- less effort and less drying time
3. U.S. mail system
Beadle Brothers
created idea of dime novel.
Anna Stevens
"The Indian Wife of the White Hunter". about a taboo subject, but the woman dies, so people read it.
COVERS of dime novels
cheaply produced and printed, depicted exotic places
women's readership
important at this time, and Stevens was significant because she was thought to be able to read women
Pulps
(1890's-1950's) rooms of people cranking out novels to a formula and a deadline
Buffalo Bill
most important dime novel character.
E.C.Z. Judson
aka Ned Buntline. discovered Bill Cody (Buffalo Bill) and wrote about him
Horation Alger
always the same story, (young man in terrible conditions who rises to middle class; business ethics)
Puritan work ethic
comes out of beliefs of Puritan settlers. believe religious dogma of work and faith
Pulp tradition
romanticized violence and sex
cover come-on
fancy covers to attract buyers
Max Brand
wrote dozens of western stories (most popular kind) and received 10 cents a word
The narrative hook
first paragraph that usually had nothing to do with the story in order to capture the reader's attention. (In TV=teaser). chapters ended with cliffhangers
Triple O
-object of desire
-obstacle to getting it
-outcome
Purple prose
bravura language. designed to move the eye along the page so that you have to read quickly. alliteration, colorful, descriptive words
Black Mask Magazine
only different pulp writers, created by Cap Shaw. wanted to write something more conflictive. attacked dominant ideology
Dashiell Hammett
wrote the classic, hardbioled detective (Sam Spade)
Raymond Chandler
wrote about people that wanted to do the right thing, but could not
Amazing Stories
first science fiction pulps
Jules Verne
made comeback in 1930's. most popular stories were "Center of the Earth" and "20,000 Leagues Under the Sea"
"The Shadow"
first super human pulp, precursor to comic books
Spicy pulps
pulps that were designed to be saucy and dangerous, suggesting the possibilities of what men and women might do
Margaret Burnbage
illustrated covers for pulps. had a great ability to draw sexy women
Pulps establish _________ ________
melodramatic tradition
Film was used to...
socialize people, particularly immigrants
Thomas Edison
gathered scientists. by 1895 he had the most copyrights. claims no one can make a motion picture without paying him because he owns all the patents=WAR
W.L. Dickson and Edwin S. Porter
worked with Edison to create his films
Edward Maybridge
first to consider art of photographing motion (horse trotting bet)
persistence of vision
illusion of eyes. image stays on eye a fraction of a second longer than the object is there
Auguste and Louis Lumiere
created first true motion picture and projected it on a screen. stationary cameras with objects moving in front of them
kinetoscopes
Edison had it backwards: he used these to show motion pictures to ONE person at a time
nickelodoen
small, quickly thrown together movie house (in stores etc.) showing 35-40 minutes of short film at a time
Sam Eastman
Edison makes a deal with him to form MPPC.
MPPC
Motion Picture Paten Company
Biograph and Vitagraph
2 early movie studios
editing
first appears in 1902 when audiences grow tired of static, silent short films
Georges Melies
began to use film as a means of telling stories, manipulation of film image, plasticity
plasticity
the ability of any medium to be shaped or molded
long shot
moment between when a camera starts and stops, distant
fluidity
ability to move a camera through space while recording an event
straight cutting
edit in which continuity of action and chronological order is maintained to create a narrative sequence
jump cut
breaks down time, space and narrative action. create a surprise
closeups
chest and up. EMOTIONAL
establishing shot
clarifications, recognizable
subjective camera
through eyes of character within the scene
objective camera
no particular viewpoint
medium shot
neutral shot, no involvement or detachment, good for dialogue
shot reverse shot
pattern of cutting between 2 speakers (basis of illusionism)
illusionism
telling a story so simplistically that the audience never gets confused. closed frames, most films
180 degree rule
cannot go past 180 degrees in any given shot
high angle shot
shooting up to give appearance o granduer
low angle shot
reduces object
D.W. Griffith
begins to create idea of illusionistic style. "The Girl and her Trust". pan and traveling shot
mise en scene
placing on stage
expressionism
about philosophy. filmmaker must have a unique vision of the world. audience should get confused sometimes and be forced to think differently. highly symbolic. intellectual and not emotional
"Cabinet of Dr. Caligari"
(1919) German, start of expressionism. distorted settings, props, events, etc.
Vladimir Pudovkin and Sergei Eisenstein
soviet expressionists
montage
juxtaposing images to create a desired emotional effect
ex: commercials
"Strike"
Eisenstein's first feature film. cross cutting images that comment on eachother
"Battleship Potemkin"
(1925) about a sailor mutiny, visual metaphors and symbols. Odessa steps: symbol of montage.
3 lions: anger of citizens is coming to life
collision montage
continuity, logic and narrative progression are lost for feeling and mood
open frame
allows action to spill in and suggest life outside the frame
decentralization
difficult to gauge what's important, everything in the shot takes equal weight
chiaroscuro
gradual shading of light to dark. give appearance of 3-dimensionality. low-key lighting
low key lighting
take away 2 of the 3 light for more dramatic shadow
3 point lighting
takes away shadows and makes face easy to see
high value contrast
black vs. white (no in between) created tension and anxiety