Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

98 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
TRUE or FALSE. If a person is infected with the HIV virus, they may, or may not have any signs or symptoms of illness but are still infectious to others.
Which of the following is (are) true about HIV? (a) It is the virus that causes AIDS, but not the HIV infection. (b) It is the acronym for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. (c) Both a and b are correct.
(b) It is the acronym for Human Immunodificiency Virus.
What signs and symptoms are seen in HIV infected individuals?
Usually none. Early warning signs might include fever, skin rash, diarrhea, swollen glands, night sweats, fatigue, cough, oral problems, repeated vaginal infections, and/or weight loss.
For a person to be diagnosed with AIDS, what must be true?
A confirmed positive test for HIV/AIDS, Immuno-compromised status (demonstrated by a low T cell count) 200 and below, the presence of either opportunistic infections or AIDS related cancer
Clinical Syndrome of HIV
How is HIV spread?
HIV is spread when an infected body fluid is introduced directly into the blood stream of a non-infected individual.
List examples of modes of transmission of the HIV virus?
Sexual (vaginal, oral, anal), sharing IV equipment and drugs, perinatal (mother to child at birth, blood, health care workers
What is the risk of HIV transmission is dependent on?
The cencentration of HIV in the infected fluid, the quality of fluid introduced into the body, the access of the infected fluid to the T4 cell
Which fluids demonstrate a high risk of transmission of the HIV virus?
Blood & Blood Components, Semen, Menstraul Flow, Vaginal Secretions, Pre-Ejaculatory Fluid, Brast Milk, Cerebral Spinal Fluid
Which bodily secretion contains a low concentration of HIV?
Pus, Saliva, Tears, Urine, Feces, Vomit, Nasal Mucous
What is the most effective way to prevent contracting the HIV virus?
What would I recommend as the least effective way to reduce risk?
What would be considered an alternative to risky behaviors?
Hugging, Holding Hands, Going to the Movies, Touching Your Own Body, Outercourse
When purchasing condoms to use as a barrier method, what would you most like consider?
Use microbes or spermicides, never keep them in a wallet or purse for a long time, use latex or polyurethane condoms, check the expiration date, check the lot number, feel for an air pocket, and it has to be water based lubricant
What is considered the window period for the HIV?
The time between infection and when a person tests positive.
Why is it important to get tested?
(1) It increases access to medical care. (2) It protects others from getting HIV infected (3) It keeps the HIV infected person away from infectious diseases (healthier Lifestyles)
How is HIV treated? Can it be cured at this time?
No cure exist. Effective, complex, expensive drug treatments are available. Maintenance of healthy lifestlye improves quality of life. Psychological, family planning, economic, and social counseling are very important.
Can you get HIV if you stand up during sex?
Can you get HIV if you have sex during a woman's period?
Can you get HIV if you have sex with a virgin?
Can you get HIV if you do not have an orgasm?
Can you get HIV if you do a little bit of sex and pull out?
Is AIDS considered a disability under the ADA (Americans with Disabilities ACT?)
Is it a liability for knowinhgly transmitting the HIV?
What are the reasons why people make the food choices they do?
Personal Preferences, Habit, Ethnic Heritage, Social Interactions, Availablity, Convenience, Economy
What unit is energy measured in?
If a person consumed 2000 "calories", how many kilocalories did he/she actually consumed?
2000 kilocalories
1 gram of Carbohydrates is equal to _____ of energy.
4 kcal
1 gram of Fat is equal to _____ of energy.
9 kcal
1 gram of protein is equal to _____ of enegry.
4 kcal
If a person consumed a meal containing 40 grams of Carbohydrates, 14 grams of Protein, and 29 grams of Fat. ow much energy did the person receive from that meal?
477 kcal of E
Name the energy yielding nutrient.
carbohydratesm protein, fat
Why are vitamins so important to life?
Used as helpers in the metabolic processes
After the energy-yielding nutrients are broken down into smaller compounds, what do you think may happen to some of that energy?
escape as heat, help build new compound, help move bodu
Why are vitamins vital to life?
Used as helpers in metabolic processes
List the fat soluble vitamins.
List the water soluble vitamins.
Areminerals organic or inorganic?
Are minerals easy to destroy?
Minerals are indestructible.
List some facts regarding water.
60% of body mass. Lack of wtaer can cause dehydration. An average person should drink at least 8 glasses of water a day. Water is abundant.
RDA stands for _____ _____ _____.
Recommended Dai;y Allowances
Where does digestion begin?
What is a round soft mass of chewed food called?
Which sphincter closes behind the stomach to prevent backflow of food?
Cardiac Sphincter
The stomach slowly grinds the food into a substance called _____.
Once the food goes through the chyme, that substance is then released to the _____ sphincter to the _____ _____.
pyloric; small intestine
The duodenum is part of the _____ _____.
small intestine
Approximately how long is the small intestine?
10 ft.
What is the first part of the large intestine called?
Which valve separates the last part of the small intestine and the first part of the large intestine?
ileocecal valve
While in the large intestine, the "messy food" travels up the right, across to the left, down the left, then across about half way, and finally to this structure before it is ready to be stored as "poop."
The opening at the end of the digestive system where waste exits the body is called the _____.
The small sac-like organ located by the duodenum is called the _____.
Where is the liver located?
in front of the stomach
What part of the large intestine runs horizontally across the abdomen?
transverse colon
The lower part of the large intestine, where feces are stored before they are excreted from the body is called the _____.
Which structure includes all of the following: nucleolus, chromosomes, and genes?
Which structures are found in every living cell?
one or more nuclei, cytoplasm, vaious organelles, and a semipermeable membrane
The process by which large un-dissolved particles are brought into a cell by being engulfed is known as:
The chemical reactions involved in the synthesis of ATP occur in a structure called the:
The process in which net movement of molecules is from a region of lower concentration to a region of higher concentration is known as:
A structure involved in regulating the movement of materials into a cell is the _____ _____.
plasma membrane
In a cell, the selective permeability of cell membrane is most closely associated with _____.
Fluid Mosaic Model
Which process utilizes cellular energy to move particles through a membrane?
The outside surface of a plasma membrane is largely made up of which type of chemical?
phospholipids and cholesterol
Which substances may pass through a cell membrane by simple diffusion?
oxygen and carbon dioxide
Which is the correct sequence of historical developments leading to our knowledge of cells?
Electron microscope, Cell Theory, Compound Light MIcroscope
Cell Theory, Compound Light MIcroscope, Electron Microscope
Red blood cells contain a higher concentration of potassium than the surrounding blood plasma does. This higher concentration is maintained by the process of:
In which cell organelle would water and dissolved materials be stored?
The ribosome is an organelle that functions in the process of _____.
protein synthesis
The early study of cells by Schleidon and Schwann contributed to the formation of the cell theory. What is the most probable reason that these early biologists never viewed the cell organelles known as ribosomes? (a)Ribosomes cannot be observed unless the cell is stained with iodine. (b)Ribosomes are too small to be seen with early microscopes. (c)Primitive cells did not need to synthesize proteins. (d)The presence of ribosomes can only be detected using a centrifuge.
(b)Ribosomes are too small to be seen with early microscopes.
Which organelle is found in most plant cells, but absent from animal cells?
cell wall
When one organism has both sexes, it is referred to as _____.
Where is sperm produced?
When is a woman's body temperature the lowest?
during ovulation
Where is the scrotum located?
outside the body
Why is it necessary for the testes to descend before birth?
reduced fertility and increased risk of testicular cancer when the boy is grown
What is a vasectomy?
removal of vas deferens
Where is the prostate gland located?
surrounds the urethra
Why is it for males to consume adequate amounts of zinc in their diet?
to keep prostate healthy
In humans, what is the penis made of?
erectile tissues
What happens to males during arousal?
the erectile tissues are filled with blood
What is the head of the penis called?
glans penis
Why is t important for uncircumcised males to keep their private area clean?
to prevent infection due to heat and moisture
Where are eggs produced?
What is the site of sperm maturation?
What is an orgasm?
when climax is reached
What is the male sex hormone called?
What is the role of FSH during puberty?
it stimulates the release of the male/female sex hormones
In females, the _____ ecloses and protect the outer external reproductive organs; they correspond to the scrotum of the male.
labia majora
If a male and a female had unprotected sex, but the male did not ejaculate, is there any way that the women could get pregnant?
yes, because of fluids that come out before sex
What are wet dreams
erotic dreams accompanied by ejaculation
Where is the clitoris located?
above the labia majora
At puberty, the ovaries synthesize estrogens in response to what hormone?
List the different forms of birth control methods.
condoms, spermicides, microbes, hysterectomy, birth control pills, vasectomy
One possible complication of the STDs gonorrhea and Chlamydia is pelvic inflammatory disease, which may lead to infection and sterility in females.
A biologist diluted a blood sample with distilled water. While observing the sample under a microscope, she noted that the red blood cells burst. This bursting is most likely the result of which process?
Which cell organelle is involved most directly in the digestion of large particles brought into the cell by phagocytosis?