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34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
primary control
direct efforts at changing the environment to suit the self
secondary control
- changing the self to fit into the environment
- i.e. self regulation
starting, stopiing or changing a process or even substituting one outcome or response for another
most basic form of over-riding
failure to exert control over oneself
exerting control in a way that fails to bring about the desired result
Self-Regulation Failure
- Lack of or conflicting standards
- Reduction of monitoring
- Inadequate strength
- Psychological Inertia
- Deficiency in (self-)knowledge
- misguided focusing
- Lapse-activated causal patterns
- Acquiescence
abstract concepts of how things should be, such as social norms, personal goals, expectations of others
- Benzodiazepine (Librium)
- Alcohol withdrawal treatment
- decreases withdrawal symptoms
Nicotine withdrawal treatments
- nicotine gum
- nicotine patch
disulfuran (antabuse)
- blocks acetaldehyde dehydrogenase so alcohol cannot be broken down
- taking it after drinking will make you throw up
- naltrexone (Trexane)
- Acamprosate
- anti-craving for alcohol
- naltrexone decreases positive reinforcement
- acamprosate decreases negative reinforcement
anti-craving drug for sexual behavior
- anti-depressant medications
- SSRI's
- block effects of drugs
- problem: competitive interaction
- indirect "pharmacokinetic" blocade of reinforcement
- less toxic
- problem: overdose! or can stay dependent
- increased sense of tension or arousal before committing an act
- increased pleaure or gratification with the act
- increased repetitive behaviors with goal of reducing or preventing stress or anxiety
- serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors
- subgroup of anti-depressants
- restore depleted serotonin
What neurotransmitters are activated during opiate use?
dopamine and opioid peptides (endorphins)
When dopamine and opioid peptides decrease, what increases?
Naltrexone (ReVia)
- for rehabilitation/aftercare
- prevents relapse of alcoholism
- approved to abate cravings
- pill that blocks endogenous opioid peptides (endorphins)
- tends to decrease binges
- work on binge slips
- glutamate partial agonist
- decreases hyperexcitability of alcohol withdrawal
Zyban - anti-smoking
Wellbutrin - atypical antidepressant
- doubles abstinence
Disulfuran (antabuse)
- will produce flush reaction to stop person from drinking
a disruption of function in this brain area can be associated with too much information getting through to consciousness
basal ganglia
(caudate nucleus, corpus striatum, striatum)
thoughts accompanied by images which are unwanted and intrusive and not related to any real event
actions aimed at reducing the anxiety caused by obsessions
OCD is associated with what part of the brain?
- over-active basal ganglia
Where do OCD patients and normal people store information?
OCD: in medial temporal lobe
normal: in caudate nucleus
What brain area is associated with Tourettes?
reduced basal ganglia volume
treatments for OCD
- Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy
- Antidepressants
- Neurosurgery
- Fluoxetine (Prozac): SSRI
treatments for Tourette's
- drugs affecting the dopamine, adrenergic and serotonin systems
- nicotine patches
Huntington's disease
- autosomal dominant genetic disorder
- caused by cell death in the basal ganglia leading to a loss of the information "gate"