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54 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
immune system
consists of the organs and tissues that defend a body against invasion.
basic defenses
simple barriers to invasion.
mucocillary apparatus
includes the mucus membrane and microscopic hairs that line the respiratory tract.
cellular defenses
consist of many different cells in the immune system that work together to protect the body.
phagocytes "eating" "cells"
large cells that ingest microorganisms or other cells and foreign particles.
antigens
small peices of ingested foreign organisms which are displayed on the engulfing cell.
phagocytosis
the process which phagocytes ingest foreign organisms and create antigens.
helper cells
detect antigens on the surface of the phagocytes.
cytokines "cell" "mover"
messenger proteins that help to activate and mobilize other immune system cells.
cytotoxic cells
produce toxins designed to destroy infected cells such as flu infected respiratory cells.
suppressor cells
turn off and regulate immune responses to prevent damage to the animal's body especially after the rest of the immune system has brought the invader under control.
antibodies
specialized serum proteins that combine with a particular antigen to combat specific parts of an invading organism.
humoral defense
carries immune responses (antibodies) around the animal's body in its fluids.
immunoglobulins (IG)
antibodies devided into four main classes based on their structure and biological charactaristics. G M A & E
immunoglobulin G (IgG)
the most common circulating antibody. the ones most likely to provide long term humoral immunity. Composed of a single unit containing two heavy chains and two light chains with two binding sets.
immunoglbulin M (IgM)
the larges immunoglobulins, made of five units joined together,
immunoglobulin A (IgA)
secreted by the body to coat mucosal surfaces such as nasal passages and other mucous membranes.
immunoglobulin E (IgE)
Play a major role in allergies. same structure as IgG but different function, Found on the surface of special cells that contain histamine.
histamine
chemical that causes various allergy related symptoms like itching. When IgE binds a substance tht the animal is allergic to such as pollen etc it signals the cell to release its histamine.
agglutinate
clump together and lose mobility
opsonize
make it easier for phagocytes to engulf
agglutination
occurs when many invaders are bound together into a tangle with antibodies.
opsonization
occurs when an antibody bound on the surface of foreign material makes it easier for phagocytes to ingest it.
canine parvovirus (parvo)
a disease that causes severe vomiting and diarreha and can kill young pups.
titer
the level of a specific antibody circulating within an animal's serum.
diluent
diluting solution
passive immunity
a newborn's ability to fight infection with the antibody recieved from its mother.
canine distemper virus
causes acute often fatal disease of the brain and other nerve tissues.
active immunity
produced by an individual's direct response to an antigen.
seroconversion
development of antibodies in response to infection or vaccination.
immunization
process of inducing active immunity against a particular foreign organism in an individual.
vaccination
to introduction of a foreign antigen into the body to stimulate an immune response.
vaccin
root derived from the first organism used as a vaccine.
cross protection or cross immunity
the process by which the immune response against one organism also protects against a different organism.
attenuation
any process that decreases an organism's virulence.
virulence
disease causing potential
tissue cultures
cells that have been isolated from an animal and then grown artifically
modified live viral (MLV)
viruses that have lost their virulence but retain their ability to induce protective immunity.
killed vaccines
made from organisms that have been treated with heat or chemicals to inactivate them and make them non-infectious.
adjuvant
something that produces inflammation or irritation in the body to get the immune system more excited about the vaccine.
subunit vaccines
contain only a few selected parts of an organism and vaccines like tetanus toxoid contain only a heat treated bacterial toxin.
recobinant DNA technology
a method that extracts genes from one organism and combines them with genes from another.
vaccinate
the animal recieving the vaccination.
antigenic overload
too many different antigens are administered at one time.
mild reaction
short lived inconsiquential reaction to a vaccine. IE lethargy, low grade fever, tenderness at vaccination site.
abscess formation
a pocket of puss under the skin.
reversion to virulence
can happen if animals are sick or stressed when vaccinated.
abortion
can happen when pregnant animals are vaccinated.
contaminant organism
when an organism gets into a batch of vaccine and grows undetected.
anaphylaxis
massive allergic reaction that involves an animals whole body.
fibrosarcoma
a fast growing cancerous tumor that strikes vaccination sites on an average of once in every 5000 cats. occurs several months to a year after vaccination.
intranasal vaccines
vaccines administered through the nose.
lypholized
freeze dried
feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV)or feline distemper
strikes most in young cats causes severe vomiting, diarrhea, and death. Similiar to parvo. Spreads through infected feces and highly infectious long after infection.