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34 Cards in this Set

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plasmacytoid dendritic cells
the first responders to viral infections which release tons of interferon

they must have TLRs or something....
what kind of receptor do pro b cells have
no receptor!!!
what kind of receptor do pre b cells have?
they have rearranged their heavy chain and it is coupled with a surrogate light chain
this is a pre-BCR
what kind of receptor do immature b cells have?
an mIgM receptor with a rearranged heavy and light chain. no IgD yet.
what kind of receptor do mature b cells have?
mIgM and mIgD
what kind of light chain do immature B cells have?
kappas or lambdas
what is a pre-T cell receptor?
a rearranged beta chain and a surrogate alpha chain (created in double negative cells)
what kind of receptor do DN T cells have
no receptor or a pre TCR (beta and surrogate alpha)
what kind of receptor do DP T cells have
a pre TCR or an alpha beta T cell receptor
what kind of rearrangement occurs in DN and DP t cells
DN - beta, they then express a pre TCR

DP - alpha, they then express an alpha beta TCR
when / where do DP t cells become SP?
after they have an alpha beta t cell receptor, depending on which MHC it recognizes they down regulate either CD8 or CD4.

this occurs in the medulla
AIRE
auto immune regulator gene
causes the medullary epithelial cells in the thymus to express peripheral antigens to aid in negative selection of T cells
where does positive selection occur in the thymus?
after beta and alpha chain arrangement. this is in the cortex I guess
where does negative selection occur in the thymus?
after the alpha chain rearrangement? this occurs as the cell makes its way from cortex to medulla
where are B cell and T cell areas within a lymph node?
B cell - cortex
T cell - paracortex
what cell adhesion molecule interaction allows for leukocytes to transcytose from the post capillary venule into the lymph node?
L selectin (on the L) and CD34 on the PCV
shutdown phase
after exposure to an antigen, the T cells specific to that antigen disappear from the blood because they are in the lymph nodes trapped by antigen presenting cells
opsi
overwhelming post splenectomy infection - this occurs in splenectomy patients because they cant filter bacteria (esp. gram pos) from the blood with their spleen
what is largely responsible for the early T independent IgM response to bacteria?
the spleen
where are the T and B cell zones in the spleen?
the T cells are located in the PALS - periarteriolar lymphoid sheath

the follicular B cells are outside of that

the Marginal Zone B cells (T independent response) are outside of that
what is the T independent response
marginal zone b cells dont need T cell activation to mount an early response to bacteria. they get stimulated move out into the red pulp and start pumping out IgM to control blood borne infection
where do B cells and T cells interact in the spleen
at the B - T cell border of course. after that the b cells move into b cell zone to form a follice / gc
what is affinity maturation
as B cells undergo clonal expansion in a GC, their receptor mutates. B cells with a higher affinity receptor receive a stronger signal and proliferate more. This is a darwinian type selection process for the highest affinity receptor in the germinal center. as the infection is cleared, the antigen concentration decreases and only the highest affinity receptor B cells keep receiving signal and survive. these are the ones that become memory B cells
where does isotype switching occur?
in the germinal center as clonal expansion occurs
what enzyme aids in somatic hypermutation AND isotype switching?
AID - activation induced cytidine deaminase
what does an aid mutation cause?
hyper-IgM syndrome
where do future longlived plasma cells go to from the germinal center?
the bone marrow
what are T independent antigens
some kind of polysaccharide on bacteria or repetiitve protein on viruses that can produce a strong enough B cell response without T cell help
in the skin and mucosa there are special T cells that produce ____ to keep inflammation in check
anti-inflammatory cytokines
where do t independent plasma cells make all their IgM?
in the red pulp
leukemia cells have only a heavy chain with a surrogate light. what kind of leukemia
pre-B cell leukemia
chronic lymphocytic leukemia is a cancer of ____
memory B cell
multiple myeloma is from a cancer of _____
plasma cells
in affinity maturation, where do B cells encounter these antigens that they compete for?
they are presented by follicular dendritic cells