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87 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The two types of immunity?
1. Natural (innate) immunity

2. Adaptive (acquired) immunity
natural immunity is aka what?
innate immunity
Adaptive immunity is aka what?
acquired immunity
4 points about natural immunity?
1. does not req prior exposure to pathogen

2. incl. cellular and molecular mechanisms

3. 1st line of defense

4. not specialized, not antigen specific
5 points about adaptive immunity?
1. reqs prior exposure to pathogen

2. has memory and is compact
(ex. buffy coat can expand in response to pathogen)

3. high antigen specificity

4. 2nd line of defense

5. self-nonself recognition (very important for this)
Two types of Adaptive (acquired) immunity?
1. naturally acquired

2. artificially acquired
Two types of naturally acquired immunity?
1. active

2. passive
Describe active naturally acquired immunity?
this is the best way to become immune to disease...from infection...ex. contact with a pathogen
Describe passive naturally acquired immunity?
Abs passed from mother to fetus (placenta/milk)
Two types of artificially acquired immunity?
1. active

2. passive

(just like naturally aqd immunity)
Describe active artificially acquired immunity?
this is the 2nd best way to acquire immunity...vaccination with dead or attenuated (weakened) pathogen
Describe passive artificially acquired immunity?
injection of immune serum (gamma globulin) from someone who has had the disease
List the 4 types of acquired immunity from most effective to least?
1. active naturally acquired

2. active artificially aqd

3. artificially passive aqd

4. naturally passive aqd
List 3 general components of innate immunity?
1. anatomic and physiologic barriers

2. phagocytic cells

3. soluble proteins
Describe 7 anatomic and physiologic barriers that are components of innate immunity?
1. skin

2. mucous membranes

3. lysozymes (mucous secretions and tears...hydrolytically cleave a pathogen at the peptidoglycan wall)

4. stomach pH (<2)

5. vaginal pH (acidic)

6. saliva

7. perspiration
Name two types of phagocytosis?
1. endophagocytosis

2. pinocytosis
Name 3 phagocytic cells that are components of innate immunity?
1. blood monocytes

2. neutrophils

3. tissue macrophages
What is the first cell that arrives at the site first when there is a break in the skin?
Name 2 tissue macrophages?
1. kupfer cells (in liver)

2. langerhans cells (in skin)
Name 3 soluble proteins that are components of innate immunity?
1. interferon

2. complement factors

3. collectins
The solubles protein, interferons, are critical in what?
virus infected cells
The soluble protein, complement factors, are inactive until what?
until you are assaulted by a pathogen
The soluble protein, collectins, kills bacteria how?
by disrupting the lipid membrane thru the use of enzymes
4 key aspects of the immune system?
1. self/nonself recognition

2. memory

3. diversity

4. specificity
Why is the aspect of self/nonself determination important to the immune system?
without it you would have autoimmune disease
Why is the aspect of memory important to the immune system?
because 2nd exposure to a pathogen gives increased and very rapid response
Why is the aspect of diversity important to the immune system?
can recognize billions of unique structure on Ags
Why is the aspect of specificity important to the immune system?
the immune system distinguishes subtle differences between antigens

(ex. 1 AA difference)
Response time of innate immunity?
Response time of adaptive immunity?
Specificity of innate immunity?
limited and fixed
Specificity of adaptive immunity?
highly diverse, improves during the course of immune response
Response to repeat infection of innate immunity?
identical to primary memory
Response to repeat infection of adaptive immunity?
much more rapid than primary response...more rapid each time you see a pathogen
3 major components of innate immunity?
1. Barriers (ex. skin)

2. phagocytes

3. pattern recognition molecules
3 major components of adaptive immunity?
1. lymphocytes

2. antigen-specific receptors

3. antibodies
2 aspects of the adaptive immune response?
1. lymphocytes

2. antigen-presenting cells (APCs)
2 types of lymphocytes?
1. B-lymphocytes

2. T-lymphocytes
Lymphocytes are what kinds of cells?
white blood cells
Where are lymphocytes produced?
all produced in the bone marrow
Lymphocytes all have what?
antigen specificity
Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) are produced where?
in the bone marrow also
Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) interact with what?
with T-cells
Where do B lymphocytes mature?
in bone marrow
What does exposure of B-lymphocytes to antigen cause?
causes rapid cell division into memory and effector B-cells (plasma cells)
What are on the surface of B-lymphocytes?
antigen binding receptor (antibody)
An antigen binding receptor is aka what?
Antibodies are what?
What is the difference between surface antibody and soluble antibody?
surface is bound to membrane...soluble is not bound and circulates in the plasma
The light chain and heavy chain of antibodies are named because of what?
their weight
Surface abs are found where?
on the plasma membrane of B lymphocytes
3 points about the structure of Abs (glycoproteins)?
1. 2 identical polypeptide chain

2. H adn L chains linked by disulfide bonds

3. Ag binds at the Amino terminal end
Soluble Ab plays a major role in what?
it is secreted by plasma cells and is the major effector molecule of humoral immunity (B-lymphocyte events)
What occurs once a B-lymphocyte meets an antigen?
Proliferation occurs. Once they meet their antigen they become highly mitotic and create plasma cells that secrete the Ab from there surface (100s to 1000s per second)
When B-lymphocyte proliferation occurs what is produced?
10^10 number of Ag specific Abs
Once the B-lymphocytes have handled the antigen what occurs?
the plasma cells downgrade but the memory cells stay and are responsible for speedier response next time
Where are T-lymphocytes made?
made in the bone marrow...BUT mature in the Thymus gland (which shrinks with age)
When a T-lymphocyte matures what do they have?
surface receptors (TCR)
What is a TCR
T-cell receptor
Exposure of a naive T-cell to Ag results in what?
rapid cell division
What cells are the result of T-cell exposure to Ag?
1. memory T-cells

2. effector T-cells
Name 3 types of effector T-cells?
1. TH (helper T cells0

2. Tc (cytotoxic)

3. Ts (suppressor)
What is the distinguishing trait of Helper T-lymphocytes?
CD4 glycoprotein marker on cell surface
Helper T-lymphocytes assist in what?
multiple immune rxns
Activation of Helper T-lymphocytes causes what?
the release of cytokines that activate B-lymphocytes, Tc and macrophages
What is a cytokine?
a group of soluble proteins
What do they look at in people with HIV?
CD4 glycoprotein marker on the cell surface of helper T-lymphocytes
Cytotoxic lymphocytes distinguishing feature?
CD8 glycoprotein marker on cell surface
How do cytotoxic T-lymphocytes kill?
they kill the Ag target directly...this is unique, the T helper cannot do this
What do cytotoxic T-lymphocytes eliminates?
virus infected, tumor and non-self cells with foreign DNA...this makes it responsible for transplantation rejection
What does MHC stand for?
major histocompatibility complex
What are MHC molecules?
they are polymorphic (genetically diverse) glycoproteins found on all cell membranes
What is MHC aka? What's the difference?
HLA (human leukocyte antigens)

...mhc refers to mice

...hla refers to people
What is involved in blood matches for transplants?
mhc, hla
Where is MHC I/HLA I found?
on all body cells
Where are MHC II/HLA II cells expressed?
only expressed on APCs (antigen presenting macrophages)
Who has the same MHC I/HLA I?
only identical twins...genes are part of Ig superfamily and show diversity bn people
What do MHC II/HLA II function to do? How?
function to present Ag (in fragmented form) to TH cells to activate an immune response

...phagocytic (macrophage) breaks Ag and then attaches frag to surface to MHCII comoplex and gives/reports to T cells
What can MHC I/HLA I detect?
viral infected cells and non-self Ag
What chains does MHC II/HLA II have?
alpha and beta
What does MHC II/HLA II do with processed Ag?
processed Ag (13-16 AAs) carried on cleft away from plasma membrane
Why would the ER get larger?
because it makes proteins
Hormones can influence what?
immune responses
Receptors to many hormones can be found where? (3)
1. T-cells

2. B-cells

3. macrophages found on almost every immune cell
Name 5 immune stimulator hormones?
1. GH

2. prolactin

3. substance P

4. Insulin

5. estrogen
Name 3 immune suppressor hormones?

2. VIP

3. enkephalins
What does ACTH do?
it stimulates the release of cortisol, which suppresses the immune system...ex. prednison stim's release so can't stay too long