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61 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Rabies Vaccine derived from cow
von Behring
Serum "Antitoxins"
Metchnikoff (Cell immunity)
Eating cells or phagocytes greater in immunized individuals
infectious nonself vs. noninfectious self which is part of molecular recognition
Danger hypothesis
Phagocytes originate from
myeloid leukocytes
NK cells originate from
lymphoid leukocytes
Innate immunity is immediate attack on pathogen.
Non specific way your body provides DEFENSE
skin and mucuous membranes

low pH
chemical mediators

Phagocytic cells (myelenoid)
NK cells (lymphoid)
Molecular structure within an antigen to which an AB is made
Classical pathway
Ag-Ab complexes
MB-Lectin Pathway
Lectin binding to pathogen surfaces
pathogen surface
What activates complement system
Complement activation causes
inflammatory cells recruited
OPSONIZATIOn of pathogens
killing of pathogens
Alternative pathway mechanism
c3 spontaneous hydrolysis causes
C3 (h20)
binds factor B
factor D
Cleavage to Ba and Bb
Convertase made of c3-h20-Bb
What molecule is a C3 convertase
Adding another C3 to C3 covertase makes
C5 convertase (C3bBb3B)
C5 convertase
C3b Bb 3B
CCP is an acronym for
Classical Complement Pathway
CCP activated by
Lipid A
1 IgM molecule
2 igG molecules
Binding of C1q to the Ig molecule
Cleaves and activates
serine protease C1s
MBL of the Lectin Pathway
Mannan binding lectin binds with high affinity mannose/fucose with correct spacing
c1s cleaves C4 to 4a and 4b
activate C1s4b initiates C2 to cleave
C3 convertase in Lectin pathway
C4b2b which cleaves more c3 to c3b
Alternative c5 convertase is made up of
C3b Bb 3b
Classical C5 convertase
C4b 2b 3b
What is the ligand on the macrophage that binds to teh c3b of the microbial surface
Cr1 of the macrophage
Four functions of the complement system
1) lysis (via pore)
2) phagocytosis
3) c3a and c5a
4) recruitment and increased vascular permeability
Phagocytes are only activated via
C3b and Cr1

is one membrane receptor for complement activation fragments (c3b 4b)
signal to the phagocytes to initiate ingestion and killing
Complement and its function in recruitment
Cell-adhesion molecules (vCAMs and iCAMS or addressins for homing)
Big Mac acronym
Membrane Attack Complex
prevents final assembly of Big Mac at the c8 to c9 stage
Examples of phagocytes
Neutrophils, eosinophils, dendritic cells
Location of tissue macrophages
alveolar (lung)
Kupffer cells (liver)
Microglia (brain)
Mesangial cells (kidney)
What is the effector mechanism of phagocyte
Release proteases and generate oxygen radicals
Four non oxidative ways phagocytes directly kill
Acidification- 3.5-4.0 pH
Antimicrobial peptides (defensins)
Enzymes (lysozyme)
Competitors (Lactoferrin and vitamin B12)
Two oxidative killing mechanisms of phagocytes
NADPH oxidase- superoxide O2
iNos-w Nitric Oxide NO
Respiratory burst generated by
NADPH oxidase
NADP donates electrons to oxygens
Two diseases result of phagocytic defect
1) CGD
2) Chediak Higashi Syndrome
Chediak Higashi Syndromes
phagocytes are non functional because they don't fuse with lysosomes
NADPH (oxidative way of killing) subunits deficiency


p67, 47, 40
signal hepatocytes to make acute phase proteins (PRRs)
If TNF alpha is released from spleen and liver into the bloodstream versus in the localized tissue?
Systemic edema decrease blood volume, hyPOproteins

Decreased Blood volume, collapse of vessels
Local infection- mphages release TNF alpha that cause
release of proteins into tissue
increase phagocyte/lymphocyte into tissue

Increase in platelet adhesion to blood vessel wall.
T cell ANTIGEN receptor-
can't bind directly to antigen
Needs MHC
MHC Class II components
Extracellular Antigen
Endolytic vesicle
Peptide production in PHAGOLYSOZOME
Peptide binding to MHC class II
Cell surface
MHC Class I
Intracellular antigen

Antigen processing to peptides occurs in Proteasome

Peptide is transported into ER where it is bound by MHC class I

Vesicular traffick to cell surface
Difference in processing between MHC Clsses is that
Class II processed in phagolysosome

Class I is processed in the PROTEOSOME.
Cytotoxic T cell co receptors receptors
alpha and beta
T cell helpers co receptors
4 subunits
identical or similar among set of peptides that bind with high affinity
How do you regulate MHC Class II expression
Promoter sequences that bind CIITA and Rfx
What if you like these Txn factors that bind to promoters?
Bare Lymphocyte Syndrome

Lymphocyte is bare because it can't present antigen that allows it to be killed
What cytokines regulate Class I? (Cytotoxic T cells, Intracellular antigen, proteosome)
TNF, INF alpha, beta, gamma
Class II cytokines for MHC
IFN gamma
foreign MHC that thymocyte TCR's have a high affinity for-

Not subject to clonal selection
MHC restriction
T cell receptor is SPECIFIC for 1) peptide
2) particular MHC molecule
Multiple MHC isotypes and polymorphisms allow an individual ...
larger pool of foreign peptides to present to T cells.

Increase chances of EFFECTIVE adaptive immune response.