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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the 2 types of Immunity?
1. Natural (innate)
2. Adaptive (aquired)
Which type of immunity requires prior exposure to pathogen?
Adaptive (aquired)
Which type of immunity is the first line of defense against infections? the second line of defense?
1st line of defense - natural
2nd line of defense - adaptive
Which type of immunity has memory?
List the four types of adaptive immunity from most effective to least effective.
1. Active naturally acquired
2. Active artificially acquired
3. Passive artificially acquired
4. Passive naturally acquired
What are some components of innate immunity?
skin, mucous membranes, lysozymes, stomach and vaginal pH, saliva, perspiration, cilia, inflammation, interferon, complement, fever, collectins
What is the response time for innate immunity? for adaptive immunity?
innate - hours
adaptive - days
How is the response to repeat infections in innate immunity? in adaptive immunity?
innate - identical to primary response

adaptive - much more rapid than primary response
What are the 4 aspects of an adaptive immune response?
1. specificity - immune system is capable of distinguishing subtle differences in antigens

2. diversity - recognizes billions of unique structures on Ags

3. memory - 2nd exposure gives an increased response to that Ag

4. self-nonself recognition - if don't have then you have an autoimmune disease
Where do B lymphocytes mature?
bone marrow
Exposure of a B cell to an Ag causes what?
rapid cell division into memory and effector (plamsa) cells
What are the major effector molecules of humoral immunity?
soluble Ab secreted by plasma cells; aren't membrane bound
Where are T lymphocytes produced? Where do they mature?
produced in bone marrow; mature in thymus
When do T cells have a surface receptor (TCR)
when they are mature
Exposure of a naive T cell to Ag results in what?
rapid cell division into memory T cells and effector T cells (T-helper, Cytotoxic T cells, and suppressory T cells)
Activation of T helper cells causes the release of what?
cytokines that activate B-lymphocytes, cytotoxic T cells, and macrophages
What glycoprotein marker is on the surface of T helper cells?
How do cytotoxic T cells kill Ag?
What glycoprotein marker is on the surface of cytotoxic T cells?
What do cytotoxic T cells kill?
virus infected, tumors, and non-self cells
What are some characteristics of MHC I?
1. found on all nucleated body cells
2. recognized by CD8
3. presents Ags to cytotoxic T cells
4. 1 alpha chain and beta-2 microglobulin (only the alpha chain is membrane bound)
5. can detect viral infected cells and non-self Ag
6. only identical twins have the same MHC I
What are some characteristics of MHC II?
1. only expressed on APCs
2. recognized by CD4
3. presents Ags to helper T cells
4. one alpha and one beta chain (both are membrane bound)
Where can receptors to many hormones be found?
B cells, T cells, and macrophages
What are some examples of immune stimulators?
GH, prolactin, substance P, insulin, estrogen
What are some examples of immune suppressors?
ACTH, VIP, enkephalins
What is an example of active naturally acquired immunity?
What is an example of passive naturally acquired immunity?
Abs passed from mother to fetus (placenta or milk)
What is an example of active artificially acquired immunity?
vaccination with dead or attenuated pathogen
What is an example of passive artificially acquired immunity?
injection of immune serum (gamma globulin)
MHC molecules are also known as what in humans?
HLA (human leukocyte antigens)