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24 Cards in this Set

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What predominant mechanism by which trypanosomes evade the immune system?
Waves of antigenic variation conferring resistance to antibody made against previous variants
What are the characteristics of the for types of hypersensitivity reactions?
ACID: From I to IV:
Anaphylactic type: type I
Cytotoxic type: type II
Immune complex disease: type III
Delayed hypersensitivity (cell mediated): type IV
What are examples of Type I Hypersensitivty Rxns (6 of them)
Anaphylaxis
Asthma
Hives(Utricaria)
Local Wheal and Flare
Hay fever(allergic rhinitis)
Food Allergies
What is the mechanism of a Type I Hypersensitivity Rxn?
Antigen cross links IgE on presented mast cells and basophils triggering release of vasoactive amines (histamine)
What is the innate immune systems primary mechanism for combatting parasites?
Macrophages
How do macrophages combat protozoans?
Phagocytosis
How do macrophages combat helminths?
cytotoxic substances
What substances tomacrophages rls that mediate inflammation?
IL- 1, TNF, CSF
What antibody/cells is associatiated with parasitic worm infections?
Eosinophils and high levels of IgE lead to dcrs allergies
In terms of dealing with intracellular infections what Tcell line of defense is best?
Th1 cells deal better with intracellular parasites by activating the macrophages
In terms of dealing with extracellular infections what Tcell line of defense is best?
Th2 with extracellular organisms
What are the key Th2 Cytokines?
IL-3, IL-4, IL-5
What is the role of IL-4 in defense against helminthic infection?
IL-4 results in class switching to IgE production
What is the role of IL-5 in defense against helminthic infection?
IL-5 is a growth factor for eosinophils.
What are the key Th1 cytokines?
IL-4, IL-10, IFN-gamma, IL-12 produced by macrophages will up-regulate the IFN-gamma production by the Th1 and NK cells
What are 2 synonyms for Type I hypersensitivity?
immediate hypersensitivity or allergy or atopy
What is characteristic of the early phase of a type I hypersensitivity rxn?
Rls of Histamine,
cytokines(TNF-gamma, IL-1, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-13, MIP-1alpha, MIP-1ß, and colony stimulating factors)
Arachidonic acid metabolites include prostaglandins (PGD2), which cause vascular dilatation, and leukotrienes (LTC4, LTD4, LTE4)
Granule proteins: protease and carboxypeptidase
What is characteristic of the late phase of a type I hypersensitivity rxn?
influx of eosinophils, neutrophils, and Th2 cells is seen and local inflammation
What is the cause of Type II hypersensitivity?
Caused by IgM or IgG antibodies directed against cell surface and extracellular matrix antigens: Antibody and complement lead to MAC attack
What are examples of Type II hypersensitivity?
Goodpasture's syndrome
Graves' disease
Myasthenia gravis
Insulin-resistant diabetes(Type II)
Erythroblastosis Fetalis
What is the cause of Type III hypersensitivity?
Ag-Ab-Complement: results from the interaction of preexisting IgG or IgM antibodies with soluble antigen. These give rise to antigen-antibody complexes that are not easily cleared by the immune system and are deposited in tissues and organs
What are examples of Type III hypersensitivity? (6 of them)
Systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE)
Serum sickness
immune complex glomerular
nephritis
rheumatoid arthritis
Arthus reaction – localized form of vasculitis in the skin
What are the Types of DTH reactions?
Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) aka Type I diabetes.
Multiple sclerosis
Transplant Rejection
Rheumatoid arthritis
Tuberculin type hypersens
Contact dermatitis hypersens(Poison Ivy)
What is the mechanism behind Type IV hypersens?
Involves the cell mediated branch of the immune system and is characterized by the recruitment of large numbers of nonspecific inflammatory cells. Damage is caused either by triggering delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions or by directly killing target cells