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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
immunologically active regions of an immunogen that bind to antigen-sprecific membrane receptors on lymphocytes or to secreted Abs
serve as teh effectors of humoral imunity by searching out antigens and marking them for elimination
secreted antibodies
All antibodies share (3 things)
structural features
bind to Ag
participate in a limited number of effector functions
the population of Ab's produced in response to particular Ag stimuus is...
members of the antibody protein family
immunoglobulins (Ig)
the ability to induce a humoral and/or cell-mediated immune response
b cells + Ag -->
effector B cells + memory B cells
Effector B cells -->
plasma cell --> secretes Ab
T cells + Ag -->
effector T cells + memory T cells
Effector T cells -->
CTLs, Th, etc --> secretes cytokines and cytotoxic factors
substance that induces a specific immune response
the ability to combine secifically w/the final products of the secreted Ab or TCRs
large immunogenic protein
carrier + hapten =
hapten-carrier conjugate.
animals immunized w/hapten-carrier conjugate produces 3 specific Abs
1) the hapten determinant
2)unaltered epitopes on the carrier protein
3) new epitopes formed by regions of both the hapten and the carrier molecule in combination
alone, cannot function as an immunogenic epitope
teseted whether an antihapten Ab could bind to other haptens, with slightly different chemical sturctures. if binding occured, it was called cross-rxn.
Landsteiners discovery
overall configuratoin of a hapten plays a major role in determining whether it can react w/a given Ab.
All of these can function as hapten
drugs, peptide hormones, steroid hormones
tolerance of self
a specific unresponsiveness to self antigens;arises during lymphocyte development
display very little immunogenicity across diverse species lines
macromoleules like collagen and cytochrome that are higly conserved t/o evolutione
the most active immunogens ten to have a molecular mass of
>100,000 daltons.
synthetic homopolymers
polymers composed of multiple copies of a single amino aid or sugar
These tend to ack immunogenicity regardless of their size
synthetic homopolymers
substances that, when mixed w/an Ag and injected w/it, enhance the immunogenicity of that antigen
known adjuvants
synthetic polyribonucleotides, bacterial lipopolysaccharides; now recognized as ligands for the TLRs
Adjuvants appear to exert on or more of the following effects:
ag persistence is prolonged
costimulatory signals are enhanced
local inflammation is increased
the nonspecific proliferation of lymphocytes is stimulated
aluminum potassium sulfate; only adjuvant approved for general human use
contains Ag in aqueous solution, ineral oil, and an emulsifying agent such as mannide monooleate
Freund's incomplete adjuvant
dense, macrophage-rich mass of cells