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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is a neoplasm?
Clones of cells that can grow to considerable size resulting in a tumor.
Define benign?
Tumor not capable or indefinite growth and does not invade healthy tissue.
Define malignant?
Continuously and invasively growing tumor.
Define metastasis?
Dislodgement of cells from a cancer that are carried to other tissues through lymph or blood.
How are malignancies classified?
Malignancies are classified by embryonic origin of the tissue from which the tumor derived.
Carcinomas comprise what % of all cancers?
80% of all cancers.
Carcinomas arise from what tissues?
Arise from endodermal or ectodermal tissues.
Carcinomas observed where?
Colon, breast, prostate, lung, skin, glands.
What are leukemias?
Tumor of hematopoietic cells.
What percentage of cancer in the US are hematopoietic in origin (so leukemias)?
9% or cancer incidence in the US.
How do leukemias proliferate?
They proliferate as single cells.
Lymphomas are what in origin?
Lymphomas are hematopoietic in origin.
How do lymphomas proliferate?
As tumor masses
What are sarcomas derived from?
Derived from mesodermal connective tissues.
Where are sarcomas derived from?
Bone, fat, cartilage.
What % of cancer in the US are sarcomas?
Which of the cancers mentioned is the most difficult to treat?
Sarcoma is the most difficult to treat by far.
The malignant transformation of cells can be induced how?
What can alter morphology and growth properties of cells?
Chemical carcinogens, irradiation and certain viruses can alter morphology and growth properties of cells. Involves:

-DNA alkylating agents cross-link
-UV light
-Ionizing radiation
-Polyoma and SV40 viruses
When cells have been malignantly transformed what do they have decreased?
They have decreased reqts for growth factors and serum. So they can survive on less than a normal cell.
Cells that have been malignantly transformed can grow in what kind of pattern?
Grown in a density independent pattern. This means that they will grow on top of eachother. There is no contact disposition so cells don't stop growing when they hit the edge of the petri dish.
Cells that have been malignantly transformed can be subcultured how?
Can be subcultured indefinitely (immortal, live forever)
Some human cancers can be linked to what?
Viral infections
List 5 human cancers that can be linked to viral infections?
1. Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (from human T-cell leukemia virus-1 (HTLV-1), not common)

2. Kaposi's Sarcoma (human herpes virus-8, HIV-1)

3. Cervical Carcinoma (HPV)

4. Some liver carcinomas (hepatitis B-virus)

5. Burkitt's lymphoma (Epstein-Barr virus (EBV))
What are oncogenes?
Genes that cause the transformation of normal cells into cancerous tumor cells, especially a viral gene that transforms a host cell into a tumor cell.
Viral and cellular oncogens are highly what?
They are highly conserved in nature.
Cellular oncogenes consist of what?
They consist of a series of exons and introns. (these exist in everyone and play a role in normal growth)
Viral oncogenes consist of uninterrupted what?
Uninterrupted coding sequences suggesting an intermediate RNA transcript.
Both cellular and viral oncogenes are derived from what?
Both are derived from cellular oncogenes encoding various growth controlling proteins.
Cellular homeostasis is a process that balances what?
Cellular homeostasis is a process balancing cell proliferation with cell death.
In cellular homeostatis what genes regulate the balance?
Oncogenese and tumor suppressor genes regulate the balance.
How do oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes regulate the balance of cell death and proliferation?
1. Induction of cell proliferation

2. Inhibition of cel proliferation

3. Regulation of programmed cell death.
What is p53?
A cancer associated gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein that inhibits the formation of small-cell lung cancer and colon cancers.
What is bcl-2?
A cancer-associated gene. Suppressor of apoptosis.
What are the two types of genetic damage found within cancer cells?
1. Dominant

2. Recessive
Describe dominant genetic damage found in cancer cells?
1. Proto-oncogenes (a gene whose protein content has the capacity to induce cellular transformation it it sustains some genetic insult)

2. Activation of proto-oncogene to oncogene includes retroviral transduction, point mutations, insertion mutations, gene amplification, chromosomal translocation. (just know that you will get a neoplasm)
Describe recessive genetic damage found in cancer cells?
Tumor suppressors, growth suppressors, recessive oncogenes.
Proto-oncogenes can convert to what?
They can convert to oncogenes.
Mutations can cause what?
Qualitatively different gene products.
What can DNA amplification or translocation result in?
DNA amplification or translocation can result in increased or decreased gene product expression.