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50 Cards in this Set

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What is the body's 1st line of defense against infection?
Skin
Mucous membranes
Refers to natural or native immunity
Innate immunity
Refers to specific or acquired immunity
Adaptive immunity
Host defense that is stimulated by microbes that invade tissues
Adaptive immunity
The 1st line of defense in innate immunity is provided by:
Epithelial barriers

Specialized cells and natural antibiotics present in epithelia
If microbes do breach epithelia and enter the tissues or circulation, they are attacked by:
Phagocytes
NK cells (specialized lymphocytes)
Complement system (plasma proteins)
Mechanisms of innate immunity recognize and react against microbes but do not react against what?
Non-infectious foreign substances
Defects in this immune system result in increased susceptibility to infections.
Adaptive immune system
What are substances produced by microbes as well as noninfectious molecules?
Antigens
Molecule that stimulates an immune response
Antigen
Function to eliminate microbes in extracellular fluid
Antibodies
Function to eliminate microbes living inside cells
T lymphocytes
Entry of white blood cells into tissue results in:
Inflammation
What are the two types of adaptive immunity?
Humoral immunity
Cell-mediated immunity
I am secreted into the circulation and mucosal fluids and neutralize and eliminate microbes and microbial toxins that are present in the blood and lumens of mucosal organs.

What am I?
Antibodies
What is one of the most important functions of antibodies?
To stop microbes that are present at mucosal surfaces and in the blood from gaining access to and colonizing host cells and connective tissues.
Antibodies do not have access to microbes that live and divide inside infected cells. Defense against such intracellular microbes is called:
Cell-mediated immunity because it is mediated by cells called T lymphocytes
This immune system has a fine specificity for structurally distinct antigens and memory of prior exposure to antigen
Adaptive Immunity
These ingest microbes
Phagocytes
Small peptides that are secreted and induce cells to participate in host defense mechanisms
Cytokines
1st exposure to antigen
Primary immune response
Subsequent encounters with the same antigen that are usually more rapid, larger, and better able to eliminate the antigen
Secondary immune response
This attracts cells to a specific area during immune response
chemokines
Soluble mediator
cytokines
What tells leukocytes where to go?
Chemostatic factors
How does the body recognize the "enemy"?
Toll-like receptors on cells of innate defense

Antigen receptors on T and B cells
These cells have receptors specific for a certain part of a chemical
Lymphocytes
Macrophages and neutrophils are part of which immune system?
Innate immunity
T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes are part of which immune system?
Adaptive immunity
How are immune and inflammatory responses a double-edged sword?
Because it provides protctioon and recovery from infection but it can also damage surrounding tissues
Portion of the antigen molecule that binds to the antigen receptors of T or B cells or to the binding sites of antibody molecules
Epitope
Small peptide mediator that is secreted by a variety of cell and stimulate a variety of immunologic functions
Cytokine
These WBCs differentiate into macrophages
Monocytes
What are the 3 granulocytes?
Neutrophils
Eosinophils
Basophils
The most important cell in the defense against extracellular bacteria
Neutrophils
What is the most abundant WBC?
Neutrophils
A cell-surface receptor specific for the carboxy-terminal constant region of an Ig molecule
Fc Receptor
Part of antibody that contains only the disulfide linked carboxy-terminal regions of the 2 heavy chains
Fragment crystalline (Fc)
Area of antibody that mediates effector functions by binding to cell surface receptors of phagocytes and NK cells or complement protein
Fragment crystalline (Fc)
Where are Fc receptors found?
Phagocytic and "killer" cells
A molecule that acts as a binding enhancer for the process of phagocytosis
Opsonin
Collection of circulating and cell membrane proteins that play important roles in host defense against microbes and in antibody-mediated
Complement system
What is the 1st cell type to respond to most infections, particularly bacterial and fungal infections?
Neutrophils
Phagocytes that enter extravascular tissues at sites of infection, ingest microbes, and die after a few hours.
Neutrophils
These phagocytes enter extravascular tissues, survive for long periods of time and differentiate into cells called macrophages.
Monocytes
How to do neutrophils and monocytes migrate to extravascular sites of infection ?
By binding to endothelial adhesion molecules and in response to chemo-attractants that are produced on encounter with microbes
What is lactoferrin used for?
Growth of bacteria
Where are basophils found?
In the blood
Where are mast cells found?
In tissues
What is another name for the Fc receptor for IgG?
CD16