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93 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Barriers for Innate Immune Response
1. anatomic/physical (skin)
2. Physiologic- tem, pH, chem mediators (complement), lysozyme, nzms, defensins
3. Phagocytic- neutrophils, macrophages, eosinophils, mast cells, basophils, NK cells
4. Imflam barrier- vasodilation, inc perm, and promotes influx of phagocytic cells
Cytokines for local inflamm response
Adaptive immunity
takes 6-7 days
Bcells, Tcells, and APCs
deals with intra or extracellular pathoges
Humoral and Cell-mediated Immunity
Humoral Immunity
Th and Bcells and Abs
deals with EXTRAcellular microbes, parasites, and toxins

Abs are effector molecule of Humoral response

Cell-Mediated Immunity
effector is a cell and is a T-cell
deals with Virally infected cells or intracell bacteria
how do you confer protective immunity?
by transferring abs specific for pathogen

and transfer cells
2 types of protective immunity

Active Immunity infers what?
specificity, memory, not immediate
passive immunity is what?
NO memory
no B cells
no Abs
treatment is to give them imbibable passive humoral immunity
how is specificity conferred?
by T and Bcells express a UNIQUE Ag receptor on their surfaces
how are unique Ag receptors made?
via Gene Recombination
what can a Bcell Ag be?
ANY biomolecule

prot, RNA, DNA, CHO or a compb
what is the soluble Ag rec on Bcells?
an Antibody molecule

(plasma cells)
what is Clonal Expansion?
the process after the specific activation of one b cell when it produces multiple spec Abs
fate of B cells
1. die
2. Plasma cells--> Ab
3. Memory cell
how do memory B cells respond?
with more affinity
greater specificity
what happens to Th cells when activated?
become effector Cells and produce cytokines

cytokines are regulators of immune response
Th cell cytokines can do what?

are critical for what?
induce inflammatory response
promote humoral response
promote cell mediated response
exhibit discrimination of self
both innate and adaptive
how do you distinguish T cells?
by their CD antigen/marker
CD4+ T cells

CD8+ T cells
Thelper cells, express MHC II
eat exogenous pathogens
Tcytotoxic, express MHC I
eat endogenous pathogens
T cell receptor is what (type of dimer)

either alpha:beta (most) or gamma:delta (more unique)
T cell receptors recognize what?
ONLY peptides in context of MHC I or II
all cells in body express what?
MHC Class I
who are the generals of the adaptive immune system (besides cytokines)?
CD4+ T helper Cells

recognize peptides derived from exogenous sources that are picked up from APCs
3 Types of APCs
1. Macrophages
2. B-cells
3. Dendritic Cells
what do all the types of APCs have in common?
they can express MHC class I
they can present endogenous peptides on MHC I

they can also take up extracell prot and put them on class II
APCs are impt for presenting Ag to what?
CD4+ T cells
Types of Lymphoid Tissue
Primary- dvlpt of lymphocytes
Secondary- activated
Tertiary- form aggressive responses
Primary Lymphoid Tissue
dvlp lymphocytes
uncommitted cells become lymphocytes

Bone Marrow + Thymus
Adult Primary Lymphoid Tissues

Embryonic Primary Lymphoid Tissues
Bone marrow and Thymus

Fetal Liver and Spleen
Secondary lymphoid tissue
regional sites to encourage interactions b/w Ag, APCs, and Ag responsive cells

Activate and coordinate IR

Spleen, Lymph Nodes, Peyer's Patches, Tonsils/Adenoids
can form aggressive IR

ie- inflamed joints
lipid/cho combination that is not present in mammalian cells
pathogen associated molecular patterns

ie- endotoxin

Recognized by innate IS
Innate IS

Adaptive IS
hardwired response. coded in DNA/germline

uses somatic rearrangement and recombination
Toll-Like Receptors
recognize many of the molecular patterns of PAMPs
where do B and T cells encounter Ag?
in the Secondary Lymph tissue
how long does it take naive Adaptive cells to get activated?

Memory cells?

1-2 days
methylated DNA?

unmethylated DNA?

non-human. recognized by Toll-like receptors (TLRs)
HSCs have 2 fates:
1. Lymphoid Progenitor
2. Myeloid Progenitor
Lymphoid Progenitor gives rise to
1. NK cells
2. Tcells
3. Bcells
(4. 1 kind of dendritic cell)
Myeloid Progenitors give rise to
1. Most dendritic cells
2. Granulocyte cells
3. Phagocytic cells
monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, eosinophils
4. Basophils
5. Mast cells (IgE)
6. Megakaryocytes
7. Erythroid Progenitor
common progenitors

committed progen
myeloid and lymphoid

ie-eosinophil progen, erythroid progen
Hematopoesis locations

middle gestation
end of gestation
liver and spleen
bone marrow
all the bones, incl. long bones
adult=flat bones, pelvis, sternum, ribs, vertebra
stromal cells
limited location in bone marrow. allow HSCs to differentiate
specific Ag present on HSCs


inhibits apoptosis

stimulates apoptosis

stimulates phagocytosis
the Ab a naive Bcell makes
what does Anexin-5 recognize?
for phagocytosis
T cells: both Th and Tc
size of macrophages

how big of particles can they phagocytize
12um diameter

8-10um in diameter
1. Neutrophils- most common WBC
2. Eosinophils
3. Basophils
immature PMN nucleus

mature PMN nucleus

active infection
2-3 lobes

4-8 lobes

less lobed
cytokine IL-5
from same kind of Tcells that promote allergy responses

governs Eosinophil growth
parasitic infections
IL-5, eosinophils, basophils
mast cells are kind of like

Dendritic Cells
99% from myeloid progenitor
present Ag to Tcells
produce cytokines for Tcell dvlpt
Lymphoid progenitor Dendritic Cells

help make what
1% of dendritic cells
make IL-4 and IL-5

Tcell become a Th cell to promote antiparasitic activity or allergy response
from monocyte derived dendritic cells

cell immune response to TB
Plasmoid derived dendritic cells
make a lot of Interferon
for antiviral immunity
dvlpt of B cells
occurs in bone marrow
where are the stem cells located in the adult?
right under the endostium in the bone marrow
T cell development
early- bone marrow
late- thymus
T cells cannot recognize....
free Ag

must be on MHC I or II
MHC Class I
CD8+Tc recognize it
a1,a2,a3 joined with Beta-2 microglobulin
Ag sits where in MHC I
b/w Alpha-1 and Alpha-2
MHC Class II
CD4+Th recognize it
4 domains 2sep chains
what do CD4 and CD8 do?
enhance binding b/w the Tcell and MHC
where does CD8 bind MHC I?
on the alpha-3 domain
Tcell dvlpt includes 2 things
1. recognize approp MHC
2. fails to recognize self
Stromal Cells in cortex of the Thymus express what for Tcell dvlpt?
MHC molecules
(+) Selection
Medullary epithel cells of thymus express what for Tcell dvlpt?
AIRE autoimmune reg gene
(-) Selection
what do Hassals Corpuscles in the Thymus represent?
jxn of cortex and medulla
debis from Thymocytes that have undergone apoptosis

how much can they extract?
immature lymph cells enter lymph tissue from circulation via high endothel venules

post capp venules

80% of incoming lcs
where do Tcells localize in lymph nodes?



in follicles

in junctional zone
what keeps the B and T cells separate in the lymph nodes?
Germinal Center Reaction
where the bcells after interaction in the junctional zone, go back to the follicles in lymph nodes and express abs
pharyngeal tonsil. in the back of the pharynx behind the uvula in the nasopharynx area

provide early host defense against aerosolized microbes
Basal cells in the skin differentiate into
Langerhan Cells (dendritic cells)
Langerhan cells highly express what MHC?
MHC Class II
Keratinocytes express what
what keeps Keratinocytes and LCs in contact?

activated LCs will break down Ecad
what chemokine do LCs upregulate when activated?

CCR-7 recognizes chemokine in the linings of aff lymphatic vessels
LCs enter what?
T-cell zone of lymph nodes and present Ag and initiate an immune response
where does the afferent lymphatic empty in the lymph node?
the subcapsular sinus

this sinus can trap free Ag. only allows Ag w/ MHC
path out of lymph nodes
eff lymphatic, thoracic duct, left subclavian vein, re-enter circulation
how long will immune cells reside in a lymph node?
5-12 hours
where do plasma cells go to proliferate further?
the bone marrow. go back to marrow b/c of growth factor environment
Tcells and Bcells further proliferate where?
1. bone marrow (plasma cells)
2. Spleen- red pulp
white pulp

red pulp
B/Tcell zone. embedded in red pulp
old RBCs, fibroblasts, stromal cells. good for plasma cell proliferation
gamma-delta T cell
lives in epidermis. activated by spec Ags