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77 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
IgG Functions (4)
activate complement
the only Ig that crosses placenta
IgA Function
secretory (mucosal) immunity
primary antibody response
fixes complement
IgE function
Basophil and mast cell sensitization
Type I immediate hypersensitivity
Antigen Recognition by B cell
Papain digestion results in how many fragments?
3 - Fab, Fab and Fc
Pepsin digestion results in how many fragments?
2 - Fab2 and Fc
Whic HLA class has a beta-2 microglobulin?
Class I
Which HLA class is associated with DR, DQ and DP?
Class II
Which HLA class is found only on B cells, macrophages, dendritic cell (i.e. cells that interact directly with T helper cells?)
Class II
The immunoglobulin involved in the primary humoral immune response is
The immunoglobulins involved in the humoral secondar response is
IgA, IgG, or IgE depending on type of infection
Th1 cells secrete these (2) cytokines in order to favor proliferation and differentiation of cytotoxic T cells and macros
IL-2 and IFN-gamma
Th2 cells secrete these (4) cytokines in order to favor the development of the humoral response.
IL-4,5,6, and 10
The Th1 and Th2 cells supress each other by which cytokines?
Th1 --> IFN-gamma
Th2 --> IL-10
The TCR binds an antigen presented by an APC via its MHC molecule. What other (3) moleculres are expressed on the T cell? What do they bind?
CD28 binds B7 (most important)
CD2 (LFA-1) binds LFA-3
CD3 binds nothing but signals intracellularly to activate the T cell.
Which genetic immunodeficiency is caused by a defective tyrosine kinase (btk) located on the X chromosome?
Bruton agammaglobulinemia
Colony stimulating Factors
IL-3 and GM-CSF stimulate:
M-CSF stimulates:
G-CSF stimulates
IL-3 and GM-CSF stimulate all stem cells
M-CSF stimulates macrophages
G-CSF stimulates neutrophils
Functions of TGF-beta (4)
chemoattract macrophages
cause macrophages to make IL's
induce class switching to IgA
inhibit growth of marrow stem cells
C4b2a is also known as
C3 convertase from the classical complement pathway
What activates the classical complement pathway?
Antibody bound to antigen (IgG or IgM)
Which C proteins are unique to the classical pathway?
C1, C2 and C4
C4b2a3b is otherwise known as?
C5 convertase
Which two C proteins are weak anaphylatoxins?
C2a and C4a (2 and 4 are weak)
Which two C proteins are strong anaphylatoxins?
C3a and C5a
Which C protein is a potent chemotaxin?
Which C protein is a potent opsonin?
How is the alternative pathway activated?
Exposure to microbial surfaces (cell walls), endotoxins, aggregated Ig.
Describe the schematic of the alternative pathway?
Factor D (stimulated by cell wall etc.) cleaves Protein B (analogous to C2) into Bb. C3b + B + D + properdin --> C3bBb(P) is C3 convertase
C3 deficiency
increased susceptibility to pyogenic infections
C2 deficiency
increased incidence of connective tissue disorders (Tissue Two)
C5-8 deficiency
recurrent Neisseria infections (meningococcal, gonococcal)
C1 esterase inhibitory defeciency
hereditary angioedema
stimulates T cells to secrete IL-2 and IL-2 receptors
made my Macros and other APCs
TNF-alpha (cachetin) is made by:
TNF-beta (lymphotoxin) is made by:
principle mediator to gram-negative bacteria
alpha- macrophages
beta- T cells
produced by activated T cells to stimulate itself (positive feedback) and other B cells
Deficiency of the gamma chain of IL-2 causes
secreted by T cells and stimulates bone marrow stem cells
Th2 cells produce these (3) cytokines to signal for maturation and class switching
IL-4, 5 and 6
produced by Th2 cells
class switching to IgE
stimulates mast cells
IL-5 stimulates which class switching?
to IgA
Which cytokine stimulates production of acute-phase reactants?
Which interleukin inhibits interferon synthesis by Th1 cells?
IFN-gamma is produced by which cells?
Th1 cells
IFN-gamma produced by Th1 cells stimulates which cells?
macrophages,NK cells. Note it inhibits Th2 cells the same way IL-10 inhibits Th1 cells.
Which T cells are involved in Type IV and Type II Hypersensitivity reactions?
Th1 cells - there was a question on how increased levels of IL-10 from Th2 cells might suppress this allergic process.
What is the pathogenesis of goodpastures syndrome
antibodies directed against the basement membrane in the lung and in the kidney
what is the pathologic mechanism of bullous phemphigoid?
antibodies directed against the basement membrane in the skin
Bullous phemphigoid and goodpastures syndrome are examples of this type of hypersensitivity
type 2
pathogenesis of hereditary angioedema
inadequate C1 esterase inhibitory activity
Which type of hypersensitivity reaction is hydrops fetalis?
type II - cytotoxic
antibodies against the body's cells or receptors
Which type of hypersensitivity response develops in response to fungal, viral, and intracellular bacteria pathogens and involves CD4 helper T cells but does not involve antibody?
type IV
Where are genetic allowtypes (helpful in paternity cases) found?
IgG1, IgG2, and IgG3 heavy chains
What kind of cells are found in chronic inflammation in diseases such as RA?
lymphocytes and plasma cells
Intracellular pathogens such as chlamydia elicit what kind of response?
cytotoxic TH1-cell mediated (CD8+)
Neutrophil infiltration causes pus and abscesses as a response to what kind of pathogens?
MHC I antigen loading occurs in
RER (viral antigens)
MHC II antigen loading occurs in
acidified endosome (extracellular pathogens)
IL that is a major chemotactic factor for neutrophils
MHC II and CD14 are found on these cells
Receptors for MHC I and CD16 are found on
NK cells
3 molecules released in the acute phase response
IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-alpha
complement defends against this kind of infection
gram negative bacteria
deficiency of decay-accelerating factof (DAC) leads to
what moleculres inhibit viral protein synthesis, increased MHC expression, and activate NK cells?
interferons alpha, beta, and gamma
hypersensitivity pnuemonitis caused by thermophilic actinomycetes is an example of this kind of reaction
Antigen variation is seen on salmonella by
two flagerllar variants
antigen variation in influenza
major is called
minor is called
major = shift
minor = drift
trypanosomes have antigen variation via
programmed rearrangement
drug-induced lupus
scleroderma (CREST)
scleroderma (diffuse)
anti-epithelial cells
phemphigus vulgaris