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74 Cards in this Set

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What is the major source of IL-1?
macrophages and monocytes, many non-immune cells and organs
What is the major source of IL-2?
Th1 and CD8
What is the major source of IL-3?
T cells, Mast cells, basophils
What is the major source of IL-4?
Th2, Mast cells, basophils, eosinophils
What is the major source of IL-5?
Th2, Mast cells, Eosinophils
What is the major source of IL-6?
Macrophages and monocytes, Th2, many non-immune cells and organs
What is the major source of IL-7?
bone marrow stromal cells and thymic epithelial cells
What is the major source of IL-8?
macrophages and monocytes, dendritic cells, many non-immune sources
What is the major source of IL-10?
T-Regs (CD4,25,FoxP3), Th2, and B cells
What is the major source of IL-12?
macrophages and monocytes and dendritic cells
What is the major source of IL-13?
Th2, Mast cells, basophils, eosinophils
What is the major source of IL-17?
CD3,4 Effector cells
What is the major source of IL-18?
macrophages and monocytes and many non-immune cells
What is the major source of IFN-α?
fibroblasts
What is the major source of IFN-β?
fibroblasts
What is the major source of IFN-γ?
Th1, NK cells, CD8 cells
What is the major source of TNF-α?
macrophages and monocytes, NK and many other cells
What is the major source of TNF-β?
mainly Th1
What are the main actions of IL-1?
Proinflammatory
What are the main actions of IL-2?
Th1, T-reg, CD8, and NK growth
What are the main actions of IL-3?
Multilineage hemopoietic stem cell growth
What are the main actions of IL-4?
Stimulates B and Th2
Stimulates IgG4 and IgE switch
What are the main actions of IL-5?
Growth of eosinophils and B cells
What are the main actions of IL-6?
B, T, NK cell growth
Pro and Anti-inflammatory
Regulation of endocrine/metabolic functions
What are the main actions of IL-7?
Growth of late pro-B/early pre-B and immature thymocytes, exp.γ cells
What are the main actions of IL-8?
proinflammatory, neutrophil activation and chemotactic
What are the main actions of IL-10?
Potent down regulator of Th1.
Promotes B-cell growth and isotype switching.
What are the main actions of IL-12?
Critical activator of NK responsiveness and Th1 development
What are the main actions of IL-13?
Mimics IL-4 and promotes IgE
What are the main actions of IL-17?
High concentration in autoimmune inflammation
What are the main actions of IL-18?
Increase INF-γ, increase IL-12R
What are the main actions of IFN-α?
activate NK cells
activate CD8 memory cells
What are the main actions of IFN-β?
activate NK cells
activate CD8 memory cells
What are the main actions of IFN-γ?
Potent M/M activator
Upregulator MHC I/II
Promotes IgG (during Th1 reactions), NK activator
What are the main actions of TNF-α?
Strongly Proinflammatory
Apoptosis
M/M activator
Neutrophil activator
What are the main actions of TNF-β?
Lymphoid Organogenesis and homeostasis
What are the antagonists of IFN-α?
TGF-β
What are the antagonists of IFN-β?
TGF-β
What are the antagonists of IFN-γ?
IL-10, IL-4, TGF-β
What are the antagonists of TNF-α?
TGF-β?
What are the antagonists of TNF-β?
?
What are the antagonists of IL-1?
IL-1 RA
What are the antagonists of IL-2?
TGF-β
What are the antagonists of IL-3?
TGF-β
What are the antagonists of IL-4?
IFN-γ
What are the antagonists of IL-5?
IFN-γ
What are the antagonists of IL-6?
?
What are the antagonists of IL-7?
?
What are the antagonists of IL-8?
?
What are the antagonists of IL-10?
IFN-γ
What are the antagonists of IL-12?
IL-10
What are the antagonists of IL-13?
IFN-γ
What are the antagonists of IL-17?
activation inhibited by IFN-γ and IL-4
What are the antagonists of IL-18?
IL-10?
What do coricosteroids do for inflammation?
They are anti-inflammatory and can convert leprosy to a more lethal form.
They suppress IL-1, IL-6, TNF-gamma.
What is the direct connection between the CNS and the immune system?
Neuronal innervation of the primary and secondary lymphoid organs and the adrenal medulla.
What is the indirect connection between the CNS and the immune system?
Neuroendocrine (hormonal) communication.
What neurotransmitters and neuropeptides are released in response to physical and psychological stressors?
Catecholamines: EPI, NE
GABA
ACH
Serotonin
Which lymphoid tissues are stimulated by noradrenergic fibers?
Bone marrow, thymus, spleen, lymph nodes
Which lymphoid tissues are stimulated by cholinergic fibers?
Thymus
Which lymphoid tissues are stimulated by peptidergic fibers?
Thymus, lymph node
What hormones, neuropeptides, and neurotransmitters have effects on the immune system?
cortisol
EPI, NE
beta-endorphins
enkephalins
What affects does cortisol have on the immune system?
anti-inflammatory (reducing cytokine production, B,T, NK cell activity)
increases metabolism by increasing gluconeogenesis
What affects do EPI and NE have on the immune system?
increases leukocyte mobilization
increases NK cell activity
What affects do endorphins and enkephalins have on the immune system?
increased T cell reactivity, and NK cell activity
How do stress responses vary?
Type (physical or psychological), intensity, duration (acute or chronic).
Can be seen as either a challenge or a threat; a stimulus or a response.
What are the two main types of stress?
Acute controllable emotional or mental stress
Chronic uncontrollable negative stress
Individuals with acute stress exhibit what responses?
Immediate: increase in heart rate, catecholamines (EPI,NE), and cortisol (slower), circulating mononuclear cells, NK cell activity
Delayed: localization of mononuclear cells to lymph nodes
What do low cortisol levels do to DTH responses?
enhance them
What do high cortisol levels do to DTH responses?
depress them
Individuals who are chronically stressed exhibit what characteristics?
decreased cytokine production (IL-1)
decreased antibody production
decreased cytokine response to disease
increased morbidity of disease
Which cytokines directly affect the CNS and how do they do so?
IL-1
TNF
IL-6
They change the firing frequency of nerves and influence the secretion of neuroendocrine factors (esp. ACTH production)
What can the immune system activate within the CNS?
Stimulate production of ACTH, beta-endorphins, and enkephalins
Cause sickness behavior
What is sickness behavior?
The modifications of behaviors as a result of signals from the immune system such as cytokines via circulation and vagal nearve stimulation.
Causes fever, headache, joint pain, anorexia, and lethargy.