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24 Cards in this Set

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What are the 3 major types of lymphocytes?
Lymphocytes, T cells, and B cells
_____ was responsible for the _______ theory which stated that antibody-producing cells have surface molecules (side chains) that can bind to antigens and that binding to a specific side chain causes the cell to produce more of the same side chain and to release these side chains into the serum as antibodies.
Paul Ehrlich, selective theory.

More on the selective theory:it states that the body creates many different sidechains on antibodies, and the antigen "selects" the correct antibody; in other words, the body creates every possible permutation of chemical sidechain-specific antibodies, and when an antigen enters the body, it is matched up with antibodies that correspond to its epitopes.
The _____ theory states that the antigen itself caused antibodies to fold around the antigen in a certain way; this theory was later disproven
instructional
_____ is liquid, noncellular component of blood after coagulation has occured (and thus devoid of clotting factors).

a. serum
b. antigen
c. antibody
d. immunoglobin
a. serum
_____ is a serum fraction (aka gamma globulin) that has antitoxin, precipitin, and agglutin factors (abbreviation: Ig)

a. serum
b. antigen
c. antibody
d. immunoglobin
d. immunoglobin
_____ is an --"Antibody Generator"; a foreign organism or molecule that generates a humoral immune response, causing the release of antibodies (abbreviation: Ag)

a. serum
b. antigen
c. antibody
d. immunoglobin
b. antigen
______ is the molecular sidechain of an antigen that each antibody attaches to; there can be many ______ on a single antigen
epitope, epitopes
_____ is the refined, Y-shaped proteins that make up the immunoglobulin fraction of serum; antibodies are specific to certain foreign bodies; antibodies can be membrane-bound or free in the serum (abbreviation: Ab)
antibody
Describe the clonal selection theory and the individuals responsible for it.

Hint:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clonal_selection_theory
Niels Jerne, David Talmadge, and F. Macfarlane Burnete. An individual lymphocyte expresses membrane receptiors that are specific for a distinctive antigen.

http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Immunology

the clonal selection theory, which states that an individual lymphocyte (specifically, a B cell) expresses receptors specific to the distinct antigen, determined before the antibody ever encounters the antigen. Binding of Ag to a cell activates the cell, causing a proliferation of clone daughter cells.
Which component of immunity is more specific: innate or adaptive?
Adaptive is more specific; innate immunity provides the first line of dedense against infection. (skin- macrophages, neutrophils, etc)
____ immunity responds with a high degree of specicifty and memory.
Adaptive
How long does it take to elicit an adaptice immune response against an antigen?
Within 5 - 6 days afrer the exposure
List the four types of defense barriers in relation to innate immunity.
anatomic, physiologic, phagocytic, inflammatory
_____ consists of lactic acid and fatty acid which helps the skin to maintain a pH b/T 3-5 thus inhibiting the growth of most microorganisms.
Sebum
____ and ____ allow bacteria to adhere to mucous membranes.
Fimbriae or pili
Physiologic barriers to infection include ______ and _____.
general conditions and specific molecules
List some soluble factors that contribute to innate immunity.
Lysozyme, interferon, and complement.
_____ is a hydrolytic enzemte that can cleave the peptidoglycan layer of the bacterial cell wall.

a. lysozyme
b. interferon
c. complement
a. lysozyme
____ has the ability to bind to nearby cells and induce a gneralized antiviral state; these proteins are produces by virus-infected cells.
b. interferon
____ is a group of serum proteins that is converted from an inactive state to an active state by specific and nonspecific immunologic mechanisms.
c. complement
______ are soluble pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) belonging to the superfamily of collagen containing C-type lectins
Collectins
____ is the ability to recognize a given class of molecules.
Pattern recognition
Pattern recognition is a component of ______ immunity.
innate
Which toll like receptor recognizes LPS (lipopolysaccharide) which is found on Gram-negative bacteria?
TLR2