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43 Cards in this Set

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Prokaryotes
Bacteria
Prokaryotes Genetic Material
ds circular DNA
Plasmids
Extrachromosomal DNA

-Toxins or Enzymes
-Inc. Virulence of microorganism
Mode of Locomotion
Flagella

Composed of:
Filament
Hook= allows filament to rotate
Mode of Attachment
Fimbria and Pili
Fimbria
hair-liked

used to attach to host cell
Pili
hollow tube used during conjugation
Glycocalyx
On surface of bacteria

-Prevents from dehydration and Nutrient Loss
Tight Glycocalyx
Slippery and loose
Capsule
glycocalyx tightly attached
Cell Wall
Peptidoglycan Linkages

NAG + NAM
Antibiotic that blocks NAG-NAM linkages
Penicillin
Characteristics of gram (+) cell wall
1. Stains Purple
2. THICK peptidoglycan
3. Acid Polysaccharides
-Teichoic Acid= provides rigidity
Characterisitcs of gram (-) cell wall
1. Stains Pink
2. THIN peptidoglycan
3. Outer Membrane (LPS)
Characteristics of mycobacteria
Mycolic acids imbedded in peptidoglycan

More resistant to drying out
Mycoplasma
Lacks cell wall= no peptidoglycan
Endospore Formation
Formed when the bacteria have exhausted the nutrient supply
Spore characteristics
-Thick coat
-Undergoes dehydration via addition of dipicolinic acid and calcium
Bacteria that produce endospores
Bacillus
Clostridium
Mutation
Changes in the genome via:
-point mutations
-additions/deletions
Recombination occurs via
Transformation
Transduction
Conjugation
Transposition
Eukaryotes
Cells are larger and more complex than prokaryotes
Nucleus contains
DNA carried on chromosomes
Organelles
ER
Golgi
Mitochondria
Chloroplast
Lysosome/peroxisome
Cytoskeleton
ER
Rough: Site of protein synethsis

Smooth: Site of protein modification
Golgi
"Mail-room"

Protein sorting/packaging/shipping
Mitochondria
ATP Syn.
Chloroplast
Photosynthesis
Lysosome/Peroxisome
Enzymes to degrade proteins
Fungi
Molds
Yeasts
Molds
Multicellular
Multinucleate
Hyphae
Long filaments
Mycelium
Colony of mold visible to the eye
Yeasts
unicellular
ovoid cells
Yeast divide via
budding
Protozoa
Lack cell walls
arthropods
Growing Protozoa
Trophozoite
Cyst
Dormant form of protozoa
Intracellular
vs
Extracellular
Enter host cells

Live between host cells
Helminths
parasitic worm
3 Main groups of Helminths
1. Tapeworm (Cestoda)
2. Flukes (Trematoda)
3. Roundworms (nematoda)
Viruses
NOT CELLS

carry DNA or RNA
Genetics Material Contained within
Capsid